Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental illness mainly characterized by a number of psychiatric symptoms. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a long-lasting and devastating mental disorder. SCZ has high co-occurrence with OCD resulting in the emergence of a concept entitled “schizo-obsessive disorder” as a new specific clinical entity with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Many studies have been done on SCZ and OCD, but the common pathogenesis between them is not clear yet. Therefore, this study aimed to identify shared genetic basis, potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets between these two disorders. Gene sets were extracted from the Geneweaver and Harmonizome databases for each disorder. Interestingly, the combination of both sets revealed 89 common genes between SCZ and OCD, the most important of which were BDNF, SLC6A4, GAD1, HTR2A, GRIN2B, DRD2, SLC6A3, COMT, TH and DLG4. Then, we conducted a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the common genes. Receptor activity as the molecular functions, neuron projection and synapse as the cellular components as well as serotonergic synapse, dopaminergic synapse and alcoholism as the pathways were the most significant commonalities in enrichment analyses. In addition, transcription factor (TFs) analysis predicted significant TFs such as HMGA1, MAPK14, HINFP and TEAD2. Hsa-miR-3121-3p and hsa-miR-495-3p were the most important microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with both disorders. Finally, our study predicted 19 existing drugs (importantly, Haloperidol, Fluoxetine and Melatonin) that may have a potential influence on this co-occurrence. To summarize, this study may help us to better understand and handle the co-occurrence of SCZ and OCD by identifying potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.