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      Inhibition of HPA-1a alloantibody-mediated platelet destruction by a deglycosylated anti-HPA-1a monoclonal antibody in mice: toward targeted treatment of fetal-alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

      Blood
      Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Antigens, Human Platelet, immunology, Biological Transport, drug effects, Blood Platelets, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Glycosylation, Humans, Isoantibodies, Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase, metabolism, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, SCID, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Phagocytosis, Placenta, Polysaccharides, Pregnancy, Protein Binding, Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune, blood, drug therapy

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          Abstract

          Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is often caused by maternal alloantibodies against the human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a, which opsonizes fetal platelets (PLTs). Subsequent PLT destruction is mediated via the Fc part of the alloantibodies. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) SZ21 binds to the HPA-1a epitope and inhibits the binding of maternal alloantibodies. However, it also promotes complement activation and phagocytosis. Deglycosylation of antibodies abrogates the Fc-related effector functions. We modified the N-glycan of SZ21 by endoglycosidase F. The in vivo transplacental transport of N-glycan-modified (NGM)-SZ21 was not impaired. When injected into pregnant mice, both native-SZ21 and NGM-SZ21 were transported equally into fetal circulation (8.9% vs 8.7%, respectively, P = .58). Neither the binding properties of NGM-SZ21 to HPA-1a in surface plasmon resonance, nor the inhibition of anti-HPA-1a-induced PLT phagocytosis, were affected by N-glycan modification. NGM-SZ21 prevented PLT destruction induced by maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies in vivo in a mouse model (PLT clearance after 5 hours; 18% vs 62%, in the presence or absence of NGM-SZ21, respectively, P = .013). Deglycosylation of SZ21 abrogates Fc-effector functions without interfering with placental transport or the ability to block anti-HPA-1a binding. Humanized, deglycosylated anti-HPA-1a mAbs may represent a novel treatment strategy to prevent anti-HPA-1a-mediated PLT destruction in FNAIT.

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