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      Arsenite transport by mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9

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          Abstract

          Much is known about the transport of arsenite and antimonite into microbes, but the identities of mammalian transport proteins are unknown. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FPS1 gene encodes a membrane protein homologous to the bacterial aquaglyceroporin GlpF and to mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9. Fps1p mediates glycerol uptake and glycerol efflux in response to hypoosmotic shock. Fps1p has been shown to facilitate uptake of the metalloids arsenite and antimonite, and the Escherichia coli homolog, GlpF, facilitates the uptake and sensitivity to metalloid salts. In this study, the ability of mammalian aquaglyceroporins AQP7 and AQP9 to substitute for the yeast Fps1p was examined. The fps1Delta strain of S. cerevisiae exhibits increased tolerance to arsenite and antimonite compared to a wild-type strain. Introduction of a plasmid containing AQP9 reverses the metalloid tolerance of the deletion strain. AQP7 was not expressed in yeast. The fps1Delta cells exhibit reduced transport of (73)As(III) or (125)Sb(III), but uptake is enhanced by expression of AQP9. Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with either AQP7 or AQP9 cRNA exhibited increased transport of (73)As(III). These results suggest that AQP9 and AQP7 may be a major routes of arsenite uptake into mammalian cells, an observation potentially of large importance for understanding the action of arsenite as a human toxin and carcinogen, as well as its efficacy as a chemotherapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

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          Most cited references 33

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              Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1.

              Human red cell AQP1 is the first functionally defined member of the aquaporin family of membrane water channels. Here we describe an atomic model of AQP1 at 3.8A resolution from electron crystallographic data. Multiple highly conserved amino-acid residues stabilize the novel fold of AQP1. The aqueous pathway is lined with conserved hydrophobic residues that permit rapid water transport, whereas the water selectivity is due to a constriction of the pore diameter to about 3 A over a span of one residue. The atomic model provides a possible molecular explanation to a longstanding puzzle in physiology-how membranes can be freely permeable to water but impermeable to protons.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                April 30 2002
                April 23 2002
                April 30 2002
                : 99
                : 9
                : 6053-6058
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.092131899
                122900
                11972053
                © 2002
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