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      Low expression of hexokinase-2 is associated with false-negative FDG–positron emission tomography in multiple myeloma

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d9422123e356"> <b>Publisher's Note:</b> There is an <span class="generated">[Related article:]</span>Inside <i>Blood</i> Commentary on this article in this issue. </p><p id="d9422123e370"> <div class="list"> <a class="named-anchor" id="d9422123e372"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <ul class="so-custom-list"> <li id="d9422123e373"> <div class="so-custom-list-content so-ol"> <p class="first" id="d9422123e374">PET false-negativity was seen in 11% of MM patients.</p> </div> </li> <li id="d9422123e376"> <div class="so-custom-list-content so-ol"> <p class="first" id="d9422123e377">PET false-negativity was associated with low hexokinase-2 expression.</p> </div> </li> </ul> </div> </p><p class="first" id="d9422123e381"> <sup>18</sup>F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)–positron emission tomography (PET) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with background signal suppression (DWIBS) are 2 powerful functional imaging modalities in the evaluation of malignant plasma cell (PC) disease multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary observations have suggested that MM patients with extensive disease according to DWIBS may be reported as being disease-free on FDG-PET (“PET false-negative”). The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of PET false-negativity in a representative set of 227 newly diagnosed MM patients with simultaneous assessment of FDG-PET and DWIBS, and to identify tumor-intrinsic features associated with this pattern. We found the incidence of PET false-negativity to be 11%. Neither tumor load–associated parameters, such as degree of bone marrow PC infiltration, nor the PC proliferation rate were associated with this subset. However, the gene coding for hexokinase-2, which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis, was significantly lower expressed in PET false-negative cases (5.3-fold change, <i>P</i> &lt; .001) which provides a mechanistic explanation for this feature. In conclusion, we demonstrate a relevant number of patients with FDG-PET false-negative MM and a strong association between hexokinase-2 expression and this negativity: a finding which may also be relevant for clinical imaging of other hematological cancers. </p>

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          Most cited references13

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          The molecular classification of multiple myeloma.

          To better define the molecular basis of multiple myeloma (MM), we performed unsupervised hierarchic clustering of mRNA expression profiles in CD138-enriched plasma cells from 414 newly diagnosed patients who went on to receive high-dose therapy and tandem stem cell transplants. Seven disease subtypes were validated that were strongly influenced by known genetic lesions, such as c-MAF- and MAFB-, CCND1- and CCND3-, and MMSET-activating translocations and hyperdiploidy. Indicative of the deregulation of common pathways by gene orthologs, common gene signatures were observed in cases with c-MAF and MAFB activation and CCND1 and CCND3 activation, the latter consisting of 2 subgroups, one characterized by expression of the early B-cell markers CD20 and PAX5. A low incidence of focal bone disease distinguished one and increased expression of proliferation-associated genes of another novel subgroup. Comprising varying fractions of each of the other 6 subgroups, the proliferation subgroup dominated at relapse, suggesting that this signature is linked to disease progression. Proliferation and MMSET-spike groups were characterized by significant overexpression of genes mapping to chromosome 1q, and both exhibited a poor prognosis relative to the other groups. A subset of cases with a predominating myeloid gene expression signature, excluded from the profiling analyses, had more favorable baseline characteristics and superior prognosis to those lacking this signature.
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            Progress and promise of FDG-PET imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development.

            2-[(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) assesses a fundamental property of neoplasia, the Warburg effect. This molecular imaging technique offers a complementary approach to anatomic imaging that is more sensitive and specific in certain cancers. FDG-PET has been widely applied in oncology primarily as a staging and restaging tool that can guide patient care. However, because it accurately detects recurrent or residual disease, FDG-PET also has significant potential for assessing therapy response. In this regard, it can improve patient management by identifying responders early, before tumor size is reduced; nonresponders could discontinue futile therapy. Moreover, a reduction in the FDG-PET signal within days or weeks of initiating therapy (e.g., in lymphoma, non-small cell lung, and esophageal cancer) significantly correlates with prolonged survival and other clinical end points now used in drug approvals. These findings suggest that FDG-PET could facilitate drug development as an early surrogate of clinical benefit. This article reviews the scientific basis of FDG-PET and its development and application as a valuable oncology imaging tool. Its potential to facilitate drug development in seven oncologic settings (lung, lymphoma, breast, prostate, sarcoma, colorectal, and ovary) is addressed. Recommendations include initial validation against approved therapies, retrospective analyses to define the magnitude of change indicative of response, further prospective validation as a surrogate of clinical benefit, and application as a phase II/III trial end point to accelerate evaluation and approval of novel regimens and therapies.
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              Clonal selection and double-hit events involving tumor suppressor genes underlie relapse in myeloma.

              To elucidate the mechanisms underlying relapse from chemotherapy in multiple myeloma, we performed a longitudinal study of 33 patients entered into Total Therapy protocols investigating them using gene expression profiling, high-resolution copy number arrays, and whole-exome sequencing. The study illustrates the mechanistic importance of acquired mutations in known myeloma driver genes and the critical nature of biallelic inactivation events affecting tumor suppressor genes, especially TP53, the end result being resistance to apoptosis and increased proliferation rates, which drive relapse by Darwinian-type clonal evolution. The number of copy number aberration changes and biallelic inactivation of tumor suppressor genes was increased in GEP70 high risk, consistent with genomic instability being a key feature of high risk. In conclusion, the study highlights the impact of acquired genetic events, which enhance the evolutionary fitness level of myeloma-propagating cells to survive multiagent chemotherapy and to result in relapse.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood
                Blood
                American Society of Hematology
                0006-4971
                1528-0020
                July 06 2017
                July 06 2017
                : 130
                : 1
                : 30-34
                Article
                10.1182/blood-2017-03-774422
                5501152
                28432222
                d7caa106-e128-4026-a49f-773df8b87532
                © 2017
                History

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