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      Phonological and phonetic properties of nasal substitution in Sasak and Javanese

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          Abstract

          Austronesian languages such as Sasak and Javanese have a pattern of morphological nasal substitution, where nasals alternate with homorganic oral obstruents—except that [s] is described as alternating with [ɲ], not with [n]. This appears to be an abstract morphophonological relation between [s] and [ɲ] where other parts of the paradigm have a concrete homorganic relation. Articulatory ultrasound data were collected of productions of [t, n, ʨ, ɲ], along with [s] and its nasal counterpart from two languages, from 10 Sasak and 8 Javanese speakers. Comparisons of lingual contours using a root mean square analysis were evaluated with linear mixed-effects regression models, a method that proves reliable for testing questions of phonological neutralization. In both languages, [t, n, s] exhibit a high degree of articulatory similarity, whereas postalveolar [ʨ] and its nasal counterpart [ɲ] exhibited less similarity. The nasal counterpart of [s] was identical in articulation to [ɲ]. This indicates an abstract, rather than concrete, relationship between [s] and its morphophonological nasal counterpart, with the two sounds not sharing articulatory place in either Sasak or Javanese.

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          Most cited references 49

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          A phonetically based metric of sound similarity

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            Comparing tongue shapes from ultrasound imaging using smoothing spline analysis of variance.

             Lisa Davidson (2006)
            Ultrasound imaging of the tongue is increasingly common in speech production research. However, there has been little standardization regarding the quantification and statistical analysis of ultrasound data. In linguistic studies, researchers may want to determine whether the tongue shape for an articulation under two different conditions (e.g., consonants in word-final versus word-medial position) is the same or different. This paper demonstrates how the smoothing spline ANOVA (SS ANOVA) can be applied to the comparison of tongue curves [Gu, Smoothing Spline ANOVA Models (Springer, New York, 2002)]. The SS ANOVA is a technique for determining whether or not there are significant differences between the smoothing splines that are the best fits for two data sets being compared. If the interaction term of the SS ANOVA model is statistically significant, then the groups have different shapes. Since the interaction may be significant even if only a small section of the curves are different (i.e., the tongue root is the same, but the tip of one group is raised), Bayesian confidence intervals are used to determine which sections of the curves are statistically different. SS ANOVAs are illustrated with some data comparing obstruents produced in word-final and word-medial coda position.
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              The vowel harmony system of the Okpẹ monosyllabic verb

               C. HOFFMANN (1973)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                1868-6354
                Laboratory Phonology: Journal of the Association for Laboratory Phonology
                Ubiquity Press
                1868-6354
                04 September 2017
                : 8
                : 1
                Affiliations
                University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, US
                University of Hong Kong, HK
                Article
                10.5334/labphon.46
                Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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