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      Diet-induced increase in plasma oxidized LDL promotes early fibrosis in a renal porcine auto-transplantation model

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          Abstract

          Background

          In kidney transplantation, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia as a co-morbidity factor known to affect graft function, is rising due to the increased number of older donors in response to organ shortage as well as to the hyperlipidemic effects of immunosuppressors in recipient. This study aimed to characterize the effects of hypercholesterolemia on renal graft outcome, investigating the role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL).

          Methods

          In vivo, we used a porcine preclinical model of renal auto-transplantation modulated by two experimental diets: a normal (n = 6) or a hyperlipidemic diet (n = 5) maintained during the 3 month follow-up after the surgical procedure. Kidney function and OxLDL levels were monitored as well as fibrosis, LOX-1 and TGF beta signaling pathways. In vitro, we used human artery endothelial cells subjected to OxLDL to investigate the TGF beta profibrotic pathway and the role of the scavenger receptor LOX-1.

          Results

          Hyperlipidemic diet-induced increase in plasma OxLDL levels at the time of surgery correlated with an increase in proteinuria 3 months after transplantation, associated with an early graft fibrosis combined with an activation of renal TGF beta signaling. These data suggest a direct involvement of OxLDL in the hyperlipidemic diet-induced activation of the pro-fibrotic TGF beta pathway which seems to be activated by LOX-1 signaling. These results were supported by studies with endothelial cells incubated in culture medium containing OxLDL promoting TGF beta expression inhibited by LOX-1 antibody.

          Conclusions

          These results implicate OxLDL in the hyperlipidemic diet-promoted fibrosis in transplanted kidneys, suggesting LOX-1 as a potential therapeutic target and reinforce the need to control cholesterol levels in kidney transplant recipients.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Delayed graft function in kidney transplantation.

          Delayed graft function is a form of acute renal failure resulting in post-transplantation oliguria, increased allograft immunogenicity and risk of acute rejection episodes, and decreased long-term survival. Factors related to the donor and prerenal, renal, or postrenal transplant factors related to the recipient can contribute to this condition. From experimental studies, we have learnt that both ischaemia and reinstitution of blood flow in ischaemically damaged kidneys after hypothermic preservation activate a complex sequence of events that sustain renal injury and play a pivotal part in the development of delayed graft function. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury has contributed to the development of strategies to decrease the rate of delayed graft function, focusing on donor management, organ procurement and preservation techniques, recipient fluid management, and pharmacological agents (vasodilators, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents). Several new drugs show promise in animal studies in preventing or ameliorating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possibly delayed graft function, but definitive clinical trials are lacking. The goal of monotherapy for the prevention or treatment of is perhaps unattainable, and multidrug approaches or single drug targeting multiple signals will be the next step to reduce post-transplantation injury and delayed graft function.
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            Lectin-like, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1): a critical player in the development of atherosclerosis and related disorders.

            LOX-1, a lectin-like 52-kD receptor for oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), is present primarily on endothelial cells. This receptor is upregulated by ox-LDL itself and by angiotensin II, endothelin, cytokines, and shear stress, all participants in atherosclerosis. This receptor is upregulated in the arteries of hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and diabetic animals. Upregulation of LOX-1 has been identified in atherosclerotic arteries of several animal species and humans, not only on the endothelial lining, but also in the neovasculature of the atherosclerotic plaque, and this receptor is often co-localized with apoptotic cells. Recent studies show upregulation of LOX-1 in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium. LOX-1 inhibition is associated with attenuation of atherosclerosis and associated ischemic injury. LOX-1 may be a novel, exciting target for drug therapy.
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              Contribution of Large Pig for Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion and Transplantation Studies: The Preclinical Model

              Animal experimentation is necessary to characterize human diseases and design adequate therapeutic interventions. In renal transplantation research, the limited number of in vitro models involves a crucial role for in vivo models and particularly for the porcine model. Pig and human kidneys are anatomically similar (characterized by multilobular structure in contrast to rodent and dog kidneys unilobular). The human proximity of porcine physiology and immune systems provides a basic knowledge of graft recovery and inflammatory physiopathology through in vivo studies. In addition, pig large body size allows surgical procedures similar to humans, repeated collections of peripheral blood or renal biopsies making pigs ideal for medical training and for the assessment of preclinical technologies. However, its size is also its main drawback implying expensive housing. Nevertheless, pig models are relevant alternatives to primate models, offering promising perspectives with developments of transgenic modulation and marginal donor models facilitating data extrapolation to human conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1479-5876
                2014
                22 March 2014
                : 12
                : 76
                Affiliations
                [1 ]INSERM, U1082, Ischémie-reperfusion en transplantation rénale, Université de Poitiers, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Poitiers 86000, France
                [2 ]CHU de Poitiers, Laboratoire de biochimie, Poitiers 86000, France
                [3 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
                [4 ]INRA, UE1372 GenESI, Plateforme Ibisa, Surgères, France
                Article
                1479-5876-12-76
                10.1186/1479-5876-12-76
                3994364
                24655356
                d7d51ea7-c507-4965-8e2b-070a5144f408
                Copyright © 2014 Chatauret et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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