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      Disease burden of COPD in China: a systematic review

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the disease burden of COPD in China and to determine the risk factors of the disease. The number of studies included in the review was 47 with an average quality assessment score of 7.70 out of 10. Reported COPD prevalence varied between 1.20% and 8.87% in different provinces/cities across China. The prevalence rate of COPD was higher among men (7.76%) than women (4.07%). The disease was more prevalent in rural areas (7.62%) than in urban areas (6.09%). The diagnostic rate of COPD patients in China varied from 23.61% to 30.00%. The percentage of COPD patients receiving outpatient treatment was around 50%, while the admission rate ranged between 8.78% and 35.60%. Tobacco exposure and biomass fuel/solid fuel usage were documented as two important risk factors of COPD. COPD ranked among the top three leading causes of death in China. The direct medical cost of COPD ranged from 72 to 3,565 USD per capita per year, accounting for 33.33% to 118.09% of local average annual income. The most commonly used scales for the assessment of quality of life (QoL) included Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire, Airways Questionnaire 20, SF-36, and their revised versions. The status of QoL was worse among COPD patients than in non-COPD patients, and COPD patients were at higher risks of depression. The COPD burden in China was high in terms of economic burden and QoL. In view of the high smoking rate and considerable concerns related to air pollution and smog in China, countermeasures need to be taken to improve disease prevention and management to reduce disease burdens raised by COPD.

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          COPD in China

          Although, to our knowledge, there has been no exhaustive or credible review of the evidence of the disease burden of COPD in China, COPD has become an increasing public health concern to the Chinese medical community. The purpose of this article is to review the evidence and evaluate and clarify the disease burden of COPD in China with the aim of improving effective management. We reviewed previous studies of COPD in China, which included data on prevalence, mortality, disease burden, risk factors, diagnosis, and management by searching related Web sites, including PubMed, ProQuest, and Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge, as well as major Chinese databases and government Web sites. Reported COPD prevalence varied between 5% and 13% in different provinces/cities across China. In 2008, COPD ranked fourth as a leading cause of death in urban areas and third in rural areas. In addition, COPD accounted for 1.6% of all hospital admissions in China in that year. The high prevalence of smoking and biomass fuel use acted as major contributors to the high occurrence of COPD in China. Management of COPD in China should focus on adjusting the distribution of medical resources and on addressing public health policies to facilitate earlier diagnosis in rural areas, aim to reduce smoking prevalence, improve patients' self-management, and keep physicians' knowledge up to date and consistent with current guidelines. COPD is one of the most challenging medical issues facing China because of its influence on both personal and public health and its impact on the economy. Optimal management strategies should be adopted and strengthened immediately.
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            Biomass fuels are the probable risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural South China.

            There is increasing evidence for a possible association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the use of biomass fuels for cooking and heating in developing countries. Data on the prevalence of COPD and objective measurements of indoor pollution from biomass fuel have not been widely available from China. A study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of COPD in two study communities in Guangdong province in China and to measure the association between COPD and indoor biomass fuel air pollution. A cluster disproportional random sampling survey was performed in populations aged over 40 years in urban (Liwang) and rural (Yunyan) areas in Guangdong, China. Spirometry was performed in all subjects and a post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity of <0.70 was defined as COPD. Measurements of indoor and outdoor air pollutants were also performed in a random sample of households. The overall prevalence of COPD in the two areas (Liwang and Yunyan) was 9.4%. The prevalence of COPD in both the whole population and a subpopulation of non-smoking women in rural Yunyan was significantly higher than in urban Liwang (12.0% vs 7.4%, and 7.2% vs 2.5%, respectively). The use of biomass fuel was higher in rural Yunyan than in urban Liwang (88.1% vs 0.7%). Univariate analysis showed a significant association between COPD and exposure to biomass fuel for cooking. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between COPD and urban/rural area (surrogate for fuel type and local exhaust ventilation in kitchen) after adjustment for sex, age group, body mass index, education, occupational exposure, respiratory disease in family, smoking status, life quality and cough in childhood; similar results were found in non-smoking women. Pollutants measurements showed that concentrations of carbon monoxide, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter
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              Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis in China: a time-based, multiple risk factor, modelling study

              Summary Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and tuberculosis are three leading causes of death in China, where prevalences of smoking and solid-fuel use are also high. We aimed to predict the effects of risk-factor trends on COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. Methods We used representative data sources to estimate past trends in smoking and household solid-fuel use and to construct a range of future scenarios. We obtained the aetiological effects of risk factors on diseases from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and from large studies in China. We modelled future COPD and lung cancer mortality and tuberculosis incidence, taking into account the accumulation of hazardous effects of risk factors on COPD and lung cancer over time, and dependency of the risk of tuberculosis infection on the prevalence of disease. We quantified the sensitivity of our results to methods and data choices. Findings If smoking and solid-fuel use remain at current levels between 2003 and 2033, 65 million deaths from COPD and 18 million deaths from lung cancer are predicted in China; 82% of COPD deaths and 75% of lung cancer deaths will be attributable to the combined effects of smoking and solid-fuel use. Complete gradual cessation of smoking and solid-fuel use by 2033 could avoid 26 million deaths from COPD and 6·3 million deaths from lung cancer; interventions of intermediate magnitude would reduce deaths by 6–31% (COPD) and 8–26% (lung cancer). Complete cessation of smoking and solid-fuel use by 2033 would reduce the projected annual tuberculosis incidence in 2033 by 14–52% if 80% DOTS coverage is sustained, 27–62% if 50% coverage is sustained, or 33–71% if 20% coverage is sustained. Interpretation Reducing smoking and solid-fuel use can substantially lower predictions of COPD and lung cancer burden and would contribute to effective tuberculosis control in China. Funding International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                27 April 2018
                : 13
                : 1353-1364
                [1 ]Shanghai Health Development Research Center, Shanghai Medical Information Center, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China
                [3 ]IQVIA, Shanghai, China
                [4 ]School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wen Chen; Luying Zhang, School of Public Health, Fudan University No. 130 Dongan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200032, China, Tel +86 138 1832 5468; +86 180 0186 4003, Email wenchen@ ; zhangluying@
                © 2018 Zhu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                Respiratory medicine

                copd, burden of disease, systematic review


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