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      Is Aberrant Reno-Renal Reflex Control of Blood Pressure a Contributor to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Hypertension?

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          Renal sensory nerves are important in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and blood pressure. Activation of renal mechanoreceptor afferents triggers a negative feedback reno-renal reflex that leads to the inhibition of sympathetic nervous outflow. Conversely, activation of renal chemoreceptor afferents elicits reflex sympathoexcitation. Dysregulation of reno-renal reflexes by suppression of the inhibitory reflex and/or activation of the excitatory reflex impairs blood pressure control, predisposing to hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is causally related to hypertension. Renal denervation in patients with OSAS or in experimental models of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a cardinal feature of OSAS due to recurrent apnoeas (pauses in breathing), results in a decrease in circulating norepinephrine levels and attenuation of hypertension. The mechanism of the beneficial effect of renal denervation on blood pressure control in models of CIH and OSAS is not fully understood, since renal denervation interrupts renal afferent signaling to the brain and sympathetic efferent signals to the kidneys. Herein, we consider the currently proposed mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in CIH disease models with a focus on oxidative and inflammatory mediators in the kidneys and their potential influence on renal afferent control of blood pressure, with wider consideration of the evidence available from a variety of hypertension models. We draw focus to the potential contribution of aberrant renal afferent signaling in the development, maintenance and progression of high blood pressure, which may have relevance to CIH-induced hypertension.

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          Brain microglial cytokines in neurogenic hypertension.

          Accumulating evidence indicates a key role of inflammation in hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. However, the role of inflammatory processes in neurogenic hypertension remains to be determined. Thus, our objective in the present study was to test the hypothesis that activation of microglial cells and the generation of proinflammatory cytokines in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contribute to neurogenic hypertension. Intracerebroventricular infusion of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory antibiotic, caused a significant attenuation of mean arterial pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and plasma norepinephrine induced by chronic angiotensin II infusion. This was associated with decreases in the numbers of activated microglia and mRNAs for interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and an increase in the mRNA for IL-10 in the PVN. Overexpression of IL-10 induced by recombinant adenoassociated virus-mediated gene transfer in the PVN mimicked the antihypertensive effects of minocycline. Furthermore, acute application of a proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1beta, into the left ventricle or the PVN in normal rats resulted in a significant increase in mean arterial pressure. Collectively, this indicates that angiotensin II induced hypertension involves activation of microglia and increases in proinflammatory cytokines in the PVN. These data have significant implications on the development of innovative therapeutic strategies for the control of neurogenic hypertension.
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            Peripheral chemoreceptors: function and plasticity of the carotid body.

            The discovery of the sensory nature of the carotid body dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. Following these seminal discoveries, research into carotid body mechanisms moved forward progressively through the 20th century, with many descriptions of the ultrastructure of the organ and stimulus-response measurements at the level of the whole organ. The later part of 20th century witnessed the first descriptions of the cellular responses and electrophysiology of isolated and cultured type I and type II cells, and there now exist a number of testable hypotheses of chemotransduction. The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of current concepts on sensory transduction and transmission of the hypoxic stimulus at the carotid body with an emphasis on integrating cellular mechanisms with the whole organ responses and highlighting the gaps or discrepancies in our knowledge. It is increasingly evident that in addition to hypoxia, the carotid body responds to a wide variety of blood-borne stimuli, including reduced glucose and immune-related cytokines and we therefore also consider the evidence for a polymodal function of the carotid body and its implications. It is clear that the sensory function of the carotid body exhibits considerable plasticity in response to the chronic perturbations in environmental O2 that is associated with many physiological and pathological conditions. The mechanisms and consequences of carotid body plasticity in health and disease are discussed in the final sections of this article. © 2012 American Physiological Society
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              Hypoxia-inducible factors in the kidney.

              Tissue hypoxia not only occurs under pathological conditions but is also an important microenvironmental factor that is critical for normal embryonic development. Hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 are oxygen-sensitive basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, which regulate biological processes that facilitate both oxygen delivery and cellular adaptation to oxygen deprivation. HIFs consist of an oxygen-sensitive alpha-subunit, HIF-alpha, and a constitutively expressed beta-subunit, HIF-beta, and regulate the expression of genes that are involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and iron metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and other biological processes. Under conditions of normal Po(2), HIF-alpha is hydroxylated and targeted for rapid proteasomal degradation by the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) E3-ubiquitin ligase. When cells experience hypoxia, HIF-alpha is stabilized and either dimerizes with HIF-beta in the nucleus to form transcriptionally active HIF, executing the canonical hypoxia response, or it physically interacts with unrelated proteins, thereby enabling convergence of HIF oxygen sensing with other signaling pathways. In the normal, fully developed kidney, HIF-1alpha is expressed in most cell types, whereas HIF-2alpha is mainly found in renal interstitial fibroblast-like cells and endothelial cells. This review summarizes some of the most recent advances in the HIF field and discusses their relevance to renal development, normal kidney function and disease.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 April 2019
                : 10
                Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health, University College Cork , Cork, Ireland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Jaap Joles, Utrecht University, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Lisa M. Harrison-Bernard, Louisiana State University, United States; Yusuke Sata, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Australia

                *Correspondence: Ken D. O'Halloran k.ohalloran@ 123456ucc.ie

                This article was submitted to Renal and Epithelial Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2019 AlMarabeh, Abdulla and O'Halloran.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 209, Pages: 25, Words: 22398


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