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      The Natural Evolutionary Potential of Tree Populations to Cope with Newly Introduced Pests and Pathogens—Lessons Learned From Forest Health Catastrophes in Recent Decades

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          Climate Change and Forest Disturbances

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            Biogeographical patterns and determinants of invasion by forest pathogens in Europe.

            A large database of invasive forest pathogens (IFPs) was developed to investigate the patterns and determinants of invasion in Europe. Detailed taxonomic and biological information on the invasive species was combined with country-specific data on land use, climate, and the time since invasion to identify the determinants of invasiveness, and to differentiate the class of environments which share territorial and climate features associated with a susceptibility to invasion. IFPs increased exponentially in the last four decades. Until 1919, IFPs already present moved across Europe. Then, new IFPs were introduced mainly from North America, and recently from Asia. Hybrid pathogens also appeared. Countries with a wider range of environments, higher human impact or international trade hosted more IFPs. Rainfall influenced the diffusion rates. Environmental conditions of the new and original ranges and systematic and ecological attributes affected invasiveness. Further spread of established IFPs is expected in countries that have experienced commercial isolation in the recent past. Densely populated countries with high environmental diversity may be the weakest links in attempts to prevent new arrivals. Tight coordination of actions against new arrivals is needed. Eradication seems impossible, and prevention seems the only reliable measure, although this will be difficult in the face of global mobility. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
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              The consequence of tree pests and diseases for ecosystem services.

              Trees and forests provide a wide variety of ecosystem services in addition to timber, food, and other provisioning services. New approaches to pest and disease management are needed that take into account these multiple services and the different stakeholders they benefit, as well as the likelihood of greater threats in the future resulting from globalization and climate change. These considerations will affect priorities for both basic and applied research and how trade and phytosanitary regulations are formulated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Current Forestry Reports
                Curr Forestry Rep
                Springer Nature
                2198-6436
                March 2016
                February 2 2016
                : 2
                : 1
                : 18-29
                Article
                10.1007/s40725-016-0029-9
                d7e9cdc5-3dec-4025-8822-3347378c434d
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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