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      Reactive oxygen species in periodontitis

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          Abstract

          Recent epidemiological studies reveal that more than two-third of the world's population suffers from one of the chronic forms of periodontal disease. The primary etiological agent of this inflammatory disease is a polymicrobial complex, predominantly Gram negative anaerobic or facultative bacteria within the sub-gingival biofilm. These bacterial species initiate the production of various cytokines such as interleukin-8 and TNF-α, further causing an increase in number and activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) along with these cytokines, PMNs also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide via the respiratory burst mechanism as the part of the defence response to infection. ROS just like the interleukins have deleterious effects on tissue cells when produced in excess. To counter the harmful effects of ROS, human body has its own defence mechanisms to eliminate them as soon as they are formed. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of different free radicals, ROS, and antioxidants in the pathophysiology of periodontal tissue destruction.

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          Most cited references 32

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Indian Soc Periodontol
                J Indian Soc Periodontol
                JISP
                Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0972-124X
                0975-1580
                Jul-Aug 2013
                : 17
                : 4
                : 411-416
                Affiliations
                Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh, India
                [1 ] Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, HP Govt. Dental College (IGMC), Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Parveen Dahiya, Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour - 173 025, Himachal Pradesh, India. E-mail: parveen_132@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                JISP-17-411
                10.4103/0972-124X.118306
                3800399
                24174716
                Copyright: © Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Dentistry

                antioxidants and vitamin c, neutrophil, reactive oxygen species

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