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      Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

      Health Services Research
      Wiley
      biostatistical methods, survey, epidemiology, sampling, research methodology, program evaluation, focus groups, Qualitative research

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          Abstract

          Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          24279835
          4097839
          10.1111/1475-6773.12117

          biostatistical methods,survey,epidemiology,sampling,research methodology,program evaluation,focus groups,Qualitative research

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