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      Selective Pressure of Temperature on Competition and Cross-Feeding within Denitrifying and Fermentative Microbial Communities

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          In coastal marine sediments, denitrification and fermentation are important processes in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter. Microbial communities performing these two processes were enriched from tidal marine sediments in replicated, long term chemostat incubations at 10 and 25°C. Whereas denitrification rates at 25°C were more or less stable over time, at 10°C denitrification activity was unstable and could only be sustained either by repeatedly increasing the amount of carbon substrates provided or by repeatedly decreasing the dilution rate. Metagenomic and transcriptomic sequencing was performed at different time points and provisional whole genome sequences (WGS) and gene activities of abundant populations were compared across incubations. These analyses suggested that a temperature of 10°C selected for populations related to Vibrionales/Photobacterium that contributed to both fermentation (via pyruvate/formate lyase) and nitrous oxide reduction. At 25°C, denitrifying populations affiliated with Rhodobacteraceae were more abundant. The latter performed complete denitrification, and may have used carbon substrates produced by fermentative populations (cross-feeding). Overall, our results suggest that a mixture of competition—for substrates between fermentative and denitrifying populations, and for electrons between both pathways active within a single population –, and cross feeding—between fermentative and denitrifying populations—controlled the overall rate of denitrification. Temperature was shown to have a strong selective effect, not only on the populations performing either process, but also on the nature of their ecological interactions. Future research will show whether these results can be extrapolated to the natural environment.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Fast gapped-read alignment with Bowtie 2.

          As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.
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            Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.

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              The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

              SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 January 2016
                : 6
                1Microbial Fitness Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology Bremen, Germany
                2Center for Biotechnology, Institute for Genome Research and Systems Biology, University of Bielefeld Bielefeld, Germany
                3Energy Bioengineering Group, Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary Calgary, AB, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ivan Mijakovic, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

                Reviewed by: Dimitry Y. Sorokin, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; Jan Martinussen, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

                *Correspondence: Marc Strous mstrous@

                This article was submitted to Microbial Physiology and Metabolism, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2016 Hanke, Berg, Hargesheimer, Tegetmeyer, Sharp and Strous.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 14, Words: 8819
                Funded by: European Research Council 10.13039/501100000781
                Award ID: 242635
                Funded by: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 10.13039/501100004189
                Original Research


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