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      Effects of Lithium on the Structure of the Rat Kidney

      ,

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Lithium, Kidney, Electron microscopy, Histochemistry

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          Abstract

          Light and electron microscopy were used to study the effects of a lithium-supplemented diet on renal structure in the rat. At the end of a 7-week experimental period serum lithium levels were 1.14 ± 0.20m M. Lesions consisting of groups of dilated tubules were found in the immediate vicinity of the interlobular arteries in all experimental animals. These tubules were identified as the connecting tubule or the initial portion of the collecting tubule. The epithelium of these tubules was generally flattened but was punctuated by markedly swollen epithelial cells. PAS-positive deposits found in both types of cells were identified as glycogen. Electron microscopy revealed considerable lithium-induced damage in the swollen cells including increased numbers of mitochondria, many of which were swollen or otherwise damaged, dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolization of the apical cytoplasm. The flattened cells of these tubules were similar to the dark or intercalated cells of normal collecting tubules. Some detachment of epithelial cells from their basement membrane was evident in these tubules. Damage was less severe in distal convoluted tubules. Lithium-induced changes were not observed in glomeruli, proximal tubules or ascending thick limbs of Henle. In medullary collecting tubules damage was less severe than in cortical collecting tubules, but detachment of epithelial cells was a common finding. The interstitial tissue of the papilla exhibited histochemical and ultrastructural changes consistant with lithium blockade of the action of antidiuretic hormone. The ultrastructural damage to cortical tubules is similar to that found in patients receiving therapeutic lithium for long periods of time. The anatomic sites of lithium-induced pathology correspond to the location of lithium-induced pathophysiology.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1983
          1983
          03 December 2008
          : 34
          : 2
          : 114-124
          Affiliations
          Department of Anatomy; University of Louisville, Health Sciences Center, Louisville, Ky., USA; Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Aarhus University, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychiatric Hospital, Risskov, Denmark
          Article
          182993 Nephron 1983;34:114–124
          10.1159/000182993
          6866174
          © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 11
          Categories
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Electron microscopy, Lithium, Kidney, Histochemistry

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