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      Technology Delivered Interventions for Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Depression and anxiety are common during adolescence. Whilst effective interventions are available treatment services are limited resulting in many adolescents being unable to access effective help. Delivering mental health interventions via technology, such as computers or the internet, offers one potential way to increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to update previous work and investigate the current evidence for the effect of technology delivered interventions for children and adolescents (aged up to 18 years) with depression and anxiety. A systematic search of eight electronic databases identified 34 randomized controlled trials involving 3113 children and young people aged 6–18. The trials evaluated computerized and internet cognitive behavior therapy programs (CBT: n = 17), computer-delivered attention bias modification programs (ABM: n = 8) cognitive bias modification programs (CBM: n = 3) and other interventions ( n = 6). Our results demonstrated a small effect in favor of technology delivered interventions compared to a waiting list control group: g = 0.45 [95% CI 0.29, 0.60] p < 0.001. CBT interventions yielded a medium effect size ( n = 17, g = 0.66 [95% CI 0.42–0.90] p < 0.001). ABM interventions yielded a small effect size ( n = 8, g = 0.41 [95%CI 0.08–0.73] p < 0.01). CBM and ‘other’ interventions failed to demonstrate a significant benefit over control groups. Type of control condition, problem severity, therapeutic support, parental support, and continuation of other ongoing treatment significantly influenced effect sizes. Our findings suggest there is a benefit in using CBT based technology delivered interventions where access to traditional psychotherapies is limited or delayed.

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          Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.

          If most adults with mental disorders are found to have a juvenile psychiatric history, this would shift etiologic research and prevention policy to focus more on childhood mental disorders. Our prospective longitudinal study followed up a representative birth cohort (N = 1037). We made psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM criteria at 11, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 26 years of age. Adult disorders were defined in the following 3 ways: (1) cases diagnosed using a standardized diagnostic interview, (2) the subset using treatment, and (3) the subset receiving intensive mental health services. Follow-back analyses ascertained the proportion of adult cases who had juvenile diagnoses and the types of juvenile diagnoses they had. Among adult cases defined via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 73.9% had received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 50.0% before 15 years of age. Among treatment-using cases, 76.5% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 57.5% before 15 years of age. Among cases receiving intensive mental health services, 77.9% received a diagnosis before 18 years of age and 60.3% before 15 years of age. Adult disorders were generally preceded by their juvenile counterparts (eg, adult anxiety was preceded by juvenile anxiety), but also by different disorders. Specifically, adult anxiety and schizophreniform disorders were preceded by a broad array of juvenile disorders. For all adult disorders, 25% to 60% of cases had a history of conduct and/or oppositional defiant disorder. Most adult disorders should be reframed as extensions of juvenile disorders. In particular, juvenile conduct disorder is a priority prevention target for reducing psychiatric disorder in the adult population.
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            Dropout from Internet-based treatment for psychological disorders.

            The purpose of this review was to present an in-depth analysis of literature identifying the extent of dropout from Internet-based treatment programmes for psychological disorders, and literature exploring the variables associated with dropout from such programmes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PSYCHINFO and PUBMED with the keywords: dropouts, drop out, dropout, dropping out, attrition, premature termination, termination, non-compliance, treatment, intervention, and program, each in combination with the key words Internet and web. A total of 19 studies published between 1990 and April 2009 and focusing on dropout from Internet-based treatment programmes involving minimal therapist contact were identified and included in the review. Dropout ranged from 2 to 83% and a weighted average of 31% of the participants dropped out of treatment. A range of variables have been examined for their association with dropout from Internet-based treatment programmes for psychological disorders. Despite the numerous variables explored, evidence on any specific variables that may make an individual more likely to drop out of Internet-based treatment is currently limited. This review highlights the need for more rigorous and theoretically guided research exploring the variables associated with dropping out of Internet-based treatment for psychological disorders.
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              Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I.

              To qualitatively review the literature of the past decade covering the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, natural course, biology, and other correlates of early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder (DD). A computerized search for articles published during the past 10 years was made and selected studies are presented. Early-onset MDD and DD are frequent, recurrent, and familial disorders that tend to continue into adulthood, and they are frequently accompanied by other psychiatric disorders. These disorders are usually associated with poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk for substance abuse, bipolar disorder, and suicide. In addition, DD increases the risk for MDD. There is a secular increase in the prevalence of MDD, and it appears that MDD is occurring at an earlier age in successive cohorts. Several genetic, familial, demographic, psychosocial, cognitive, and biological correlates of onset and course of early-onset depression have been identified. Few studies, however, have examined the combined effects of these correlates. Considerable advances have been made in our knowledge of early-onset depression. Nevertheless, further research is needed in understanding the pathogenesis of childhood mood disorders. Toward this end, studies aimed at elucidating mechanisms and interrelationships among the different domains of risk factors are needed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44225 385086 , r.grist@brighton.ac.uk
                Journal
                Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev
                Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev
                Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
                Springer US (New York )
                1096-4037
                1573-2827
                18 September 2018
                18 September 2018
                2019
                : 22
                : 2
                : 147-171
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2162 1699, GRID grid.7340.0, Department for Health, , University of Bath, ; 6.19 Wessex House, Bath, BA2 7AY UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0573 576X, GRID grid.451190.8, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Child, and Adolescent Mental Health Service, ; Temple House, Keynsham, UK
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000121073784, GRID grid.12477.37, School of Applied Social Science, , University of Brighton, ; Mayfield House, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9PH UK
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4285-5272
                Article
                271
                10.1007/s10567-018-0271-8
                6479049
                30229343
                d8152c76-ff30-42cb-aaa3-307cb3c56a03
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                depression,anxiety,child,adolescent,technology,review
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                depression, anxiety, child, adolescent, technology, review

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