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      Neutrophil Death in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Shedding More Light on Neutrophils as a Pathogenic Link to Chronic Inflammation

      , , ,
      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Neutrophils are an essential component of the innate immune response, but their prolonged activation can lead to chronic inflammation. Consequently, neutrophil homeostasis is tightly regulated through balance between granulopoiesis and clearance of dying cells. The bone marrow is both a site of neutrophil production and the place they return to and die. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by the mutations in three types of molecular markers, with emphasis on Janus kinase 2 gene mutation (JAK2V617F). The MPN bone marrow stem cell niche is a site of chronic inflammation, with commonly increased cells of myeloid lineage, including neutrophils. The MPN neutrophils are characterized by the upregulation of JAK target genes. Additionally, MPN neutrophils display malignant nature, they are in a state of activation, and with deregulated apoptotic machinery. In other words, neutrophils deserve to be placed in the midst of major events in MPN. Our crucial interest in this review is better understanding of how neutrophils die in MPN mirrored by defects in apoptosis and to what possible extent they can contribute to MPN pathophysiology. We tend to expect that reduced neutrophil apoptosis will establish a pathogenic link to chronic inflammation in MPN.

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          Most cited references187

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          Regulation of apoptosis in health and disease: the balancing act of BCL-2 family proteins

          The loss of vital cells within healthy tissues contributes to the development, progression and treatment outcomes of many human disorders, including neurological and infectious diseases as well as environmental and medical toxicities. Conversely, the abnormal survival and accumulation of damaged or superfluous cells drive prominent human pathologies such as cancers and autoimmune diseases. Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved cell death pathway that is responsible for the programmed culling of cells during normal eukaryotic development and maintenance of organismal homeostasis. This pathway is controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins, which contains both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival members that balance the decision between cellular life and death. Recent insights into the dynamic interactions between BCL-2 family proteins and how they control apoptotic cell death in healthy and diseased cells have uncovered novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Importantly, the development of both positive and negative small-molecule modulators of apoptosis is now enabling researchers to translate the discoveries that have been made in the laboratory into clinical practice to positively impact human health.
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            Neutrophil: A Cell with Many Roles in Inflammation or Several Cell Types?

            Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation, and have been regarded as first line of defense in the innate arm of the immune system. They capture and destroy invading microorganisms, through phagocytosis and intracellular degradation, release of granules, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps after detecting pathogens. Neutrophils also participate as mediators of inflammation. The classical view for these leukocytes is that neutrophils constitute a homogenous population of terminally differentiated cells with a unique function. However, evidence accumulated in recent years, has revealed that neutrophils present a large phenotypic heterogeneity and functional versatility, which place neutrophils as important modulators of both inflammation and immune responses. Indeed, the roles played by neutrophils in homeostatic conditions as well as in pathological inflammation and immune processes are the focus of a renovated interest in neutrophil biology. In this review, I present the concept of neutrophil phenotypic and functional heterogeneity and describe several neutrophil subpopulations reported to date. I also discuss the role these subpopulations seem to play in homeostasis and disease.
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              Emerging roles of caspase-3 in apoptosis.

              Caspases are crucial mediators of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Among them, caspase-3 is a frequently activated death protease, catalyzing the specific cleavage of many key cellular proteins. However, the specific requirements of this (or any other) caspase in apoptosis have remained largely unknown until now. Pathways to caspase-3 activation have been identified that are either dependent on or independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9 function. Caspase-3 is essential for normal brain development and is important or essential in other apoptotic scenarios in a remarkable tissue-, cell type- or death stimulus-specific manner. Caspase-3 is also required for some typical hallmarks of apoptosis, and is indispensable for apoptotic chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation in all cell types examined. Thus, caspase-3 is essential for certain processes associated with the dismantling of the cell and the formation of apoptotic bodies, but it may also function before or at the stage when commitment to loss of cell viability is made.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                February 2022
                January 27 2022
                : 23
                : 3
                : 1490
                Article
                10.3390/ijms23031490
                35163413
                d818bb75-61ef-4b6e-ad0b-4eb8f1eff806
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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