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      Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory

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          After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different processes that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech processing.

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          Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating?

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            Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing.

            The advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed tremendous advances in our understanding of brain-language relationships, in addition to generating substantial empirical data on this subject in the form of thousands of activation peak coordinates reported in a decade of language studies. We performed a large-scale meta-analysis of this literature, aimed at defining the composition of the phonological, semantic, and sentence processing networks in the frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions of the left cerebral hemisphere. For each of these language components, activation peaks issued from relevant component-specific contrasts were submitted to a spatial clustering algorithm, which gathered activation peaks on the basis of their relative distance in the MNI space. From a sample of 730 activation peaks extracted from 129 scientific reports selected among 260, we isolated 30 activation clusters, defining the functional fields constituting three distributed networks of frontal and temporal areas and revealing the functional organization of the left hemisphere for language. The functional role of each activation cluster is discussed based on the nature of the tasks in which it was involved. This meta-analysis sheds light on several contemporary issues, notably on the fine-scale functional architecture of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonological and semantic processing, the evidence for an elementary audio-motor loop involved in both comprehension and production of syllables including the primary auditory areas and the motor mouth area, evidence of areas of overlap between phonological and semantic processing, in particular at the location of the selective human voice area that was the seat of partial overlap of the three language components, the evidence of a cortical area in the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus dedicated to syntactic processing and in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus a region selectively activated by sentence and text processing, and the hypothesis that different working memory perception-actions loops are identifiable for the different language components. These results argue for large-scale architecture networks rather than modular organization of language in the left hemisphere.
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              The P300 wave of the human event-related potential.

               T Picton (1992)
              The P300 wave is a positive deflection in the human event-related potential. It is most commonly elicited in an "oddball" paradigm when a subject detects an occasional "target" stimulus in a regular train of standard stimuli. The P300 wave only occurs if the subject is actively engaged in the task of detecting the targets. Its amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets. Its latency varies with the difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from the standard stimuli. A typical peak latency when a young adult subject makes a simple discrimination is 300 ms. In patients with decreased cognitive ability, the P300 is smaller and later than in age-matched normal subjects. The intracerebral origin of the P300 wave is not known and its role in cognition not clearly understood. The P300 may have multiple intracerebral generators, with the hippocampus and various association areas of the neocortex all contributing to the scalp-recorded potential. The P300 wave may represent the transfer of information to consciousness, a process that involves many different regions of the brain.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychology
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Research Foundation
                05 April 2011
                12 May 2011
                : 2
                1Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée, CNRS, Université de la Méditerranée Marseille, France
                2Auditory Development Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lutz Jäncke, University of Zurich, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Psyche Loui, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, USA; Antoine Shahin, The Ohio State University, USA

                *Correspondence: Mireille Besson, Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée, CNRS, Université de la Méditerranée, 31-Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille CEDEX 20, France. e-mail: mireille.besson@ 123456incm.cnrs-mrs.fr

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience, a specialty of Frontiers in Psychology.

                Copyright © 2011 Besson, Chobert and Marie.

                This is an open-access article subject to a non-exclusive license between the authors and Frontiers Media SA, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and other Frontiers conditions are complied with.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 150, Pages: 12, Words: 11361
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