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      Flow Diversion with Low-Profile Braided Stents for the Treatment of Very Small or Uncoilable Intracranial Aneurysms at or Distal to the Circle of Willis

      , , , , ,

      American Journal of Neuroradiology

      American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR)

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          Most cited references 29

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          High WSS or low WSS? Complex interactions of hemodynamics with intracranial aneurysm initiation, growth, and rupture: toward a unifying hypothesis.

          Increasing detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, catastrophic outcomes from subarachnoid hemorrhage, and risks and cost of treatment necessitate defining objective predictive parameters of aneurysm rupture risk. Image-based computational fluid dynamics models have suggested associations between hemodynamics and intracranial aneurysm rupture, albeit with conflicting findings regarding wall shear stress. We propose that the "high-versus-low wall shear stress" controversy is a manifestation of the complexity of aneurysm pathophysiology, and both high and low wall shear stress can drive intracranial aneurysm growth and rupture. Low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index trigger an inflammatory-cell-mediated pathway, which could be associated with the growth and rupture of large, atherosclerotic aneurysm phenotypes, while high wall shear stress combined with a positive wall shear stress gradient trigger a mural-cell-mediated pathway, which could be associated with the growth and rupture of small or secondary bleb aneurysm phenotypes. This hypothesis correlates disparate intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology with the results of computational fluid dynamics in search of more reliable risk predictors.
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            Stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysms: clinical and angiographic results in 216 consecutive aneurysms.

            Stent-assisted coiling has expanded the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, but the rates of procedure-related neurological complications and the incidence of angiographic aneurysm recurrence of this novel treatment are not yet well known. We present our experience with stent-assisted coiling with special emphasis on procedure-related neurological complications and incidence of angiographic recurrence. Clinical and angiographic outcomes of 1137 consecutive patients (1325 aneurysms) coiled with and without stent-assisted coiling technique from January 2002 to January 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 1109 aneurysms (83.5%) treated without and 216 (16.5%) treated with stents (15 of 216; 6.9% balloon-expandable versus 201 of 216; 93.1% self-expandable stents). Stents were delivered after coiling in 55.1% (119 of 216) and before coiling in 44.9% (97 of 216) of the cases. Permanent neurological procedure-related complications occurred in 7.4% (16 of 216) of the procedures with stents versus 3.8% (42 of 1109) in the procedures without stents (logistic regression P=0.644; OR: 1.289; 95% CI: 0.439 to 3.779). Procedure-induced mortality occurred in 4.6% (10 of 216) of the procedures with stents versus 1.2% (13 of 1109) in the procedures without stents (logistic regression P=0.006; OR: 0.116; 95% CI: 0.025 to 0.531). A total of 52.7% (114 of 216) of aneurysms treated with stents have been followed so far versus 69.8% (774 of 1109) of aneurysms treated without stents, disclosing angiographic recurrence in 14.9% (17 of 114) versus 33.5% (259 of 774), respectively (Fisher exact test P<0.0001; OR: 0.3485; 95% CI: 0.2038 to 0.5960). Stents were associated with a significant decrease of angiographic recurrences, but they were associated with more lethal complications compared with coiling without stents.
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              Complex hemodynamics at the apex of an arterial bifurcation induces vascular remodeling resembling cerebral aneurysm initiation.

              Arterial bifurcation apices are common sites for cerebral aneurysms, raising the possibility that the unique hemodynamic conditions associated with flow dividers predispose the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation. This study sought to identify the specific hemodynamic insults that lead to maladaptive vascular remodeling associated with aneurysm development and to identify early remodeling events at the tissue and cellular levels. We surgically created new branch points in the carotid vasculature of 6 female adult dogs. In vivo angiographic imaging and computational fluid dynamics simulations revealed the detailed hemodynamic microenvironment for each bifurcation, which were then spatially correlated with histologic features showing specific tissue responses. We observed 2 distinct patterns of vessel wall remodeling: (1) hyperplasia that formed an intimal pad at the bifurcation apex and (2) destructive remodeling in the adjacent region of flow acceleration that resembled the initiation of an intracranial aneurysm, characterized by disruption of the internal elastic lamina, loss of medial smooth muscle cells, reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and loss of fibronectin. Strong localization of aneurysm-type remodeling to the region of accelerating flow suggests that a combination of high wall shear stress and a high gradient in wall shear stress represents a "dangerous" hemodynamic condition that predisposes the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Neuroradiology
                AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
                American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR)
                0195-6108
                1936-959X
                November 15 2017
                November 2017
                November 2017
                September 07 2017
                : 38
                : 11
                : 2131-2137
                Article
                10.3174/ajnr.A5362
                © 2017
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