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      Isolation and Functional Determination of SKOR Potassium Channel in Purple Osier Willow, Salix purpurea

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          Potassium (K +) plays key roles in plant growth and development. However, molecular mechanism studies of K + nutrition in forest plants are largely rare. In plants, SKOR gene encodes for the outward rectifying Shaker-type K + channel that is responsible for the long-distance transportation of K + through xylem in roots. In this study, we determined a Shaker-type K + channel gene in purple osier ( Salix purpurea), designated as SpuSKOR, and determined its function using a patch clamp electrophysiological system. SpuSKOR was closely clustered with poplar PtrSKOR in the phylogenetic tree. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that SpuSKOR was predominantly expressed in roots, and expression decreased under K + depletion conditions. Patch clamp analysis via HEK293-T cells demonstrated that the activity of the SpuSKOR channel was activated when the cell membrane voltage reached at -10 mV, and the channel activity was enhanced along with the increase of membrane voltage. Outward currents were recorded and induced in response to the decrease of external K + concentration. Our results indicate that SpuSKOR is a typical voltage dependent outwardly rectifying K + channel in purple osier. This study provides theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of K + transport and distribution in woody plants.

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          MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.

          Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.
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            A Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bio Assays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures

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              Molecular mechanisms and regulation of K+ transport in higher plants.

              Potassium (K+) plays a number of important roles in plant growth and development. Over the past few years, molecular approaches associated with electrophysiological analyses have greatly advanced our understanding of K+ transport in plants. A large number of genes encoding K+ transport systems have been identified, revealing a high level of complexity. Characterization of some transport systems is providing exciting information at the molecular level on functions such as root K+ uptake and secretion into the xylem sap, K+ transport in guard cells, or K+ influx into growing pollen tubes. In this review, we take stock of this recent molecular information. The main families of plant K+ transport systems (Shaker and KCO channels, KUP/HAK/KT and HKT transporters) are described, along with molecular data on how these systems are regulated. Finally, we discuss a few physiological questions on which molecular studies have shed new light.

                Author and article information

                Int J Genomics
                Int J Genomics
                International Journal of Genomics
                25 February 2021
                : 2021
                1Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Forestry in Southern China of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
                2The Engineering Research Institute of Agriculture and Forestry, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong, China
                3Molecular Testing Laboratory of New Plant Varieties in Southern China of State Forestry Administration, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
                4Key Laboratory of Molecular Module-Based Breeding of High Yield and Abiotic Resistant Plants in Universities of Shandong (Ludong University), Yantai, Shandong, China
                5Department of Plant Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ertugrul Filiz

                Copyright © 2021 Yahui Chen et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2019YFD1000500
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31501743
                Funded by: Agricultural Variety Improvement Project of Shandong Province
                Award ID: 2019LZGC009
                Research Article


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