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      Pest Management and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Grapes: A Review


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          Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most toxic member of ochratoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The most relevant species involved in OTA production in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius. Berry infection by A. carbonarius is enhanced by damage to the skin caused by abiotic and biotic factors. Insect pests play a major role in European vineyards, and Lepidopteran species such as the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana are undoubtedly crucial. New scenarios are also emerging due to the introduction and spread of allochthonous pests as well as climate change. Such pests may be involved in the dissemination of OTA producing fungi even if confirmation is still lacking and further studies are needed. An OTA predicting model is available, but it should be integrated with models aimed at forecasting L. botrana phenology and demography in order to improve model reliability.

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          Impact of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in North America and Europe: History, Biology, Ecology, and Management.

          The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pentatomid introduced from Asia into the United States, Canada, multiple European countries, and Chile. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic United States reached outbreak levels and subsequent feeding severely damaged tree fruit as well as other crops. Significant nuisance issues from adults overwintering inside homes were common. BMSB is a highly polyphagous species with a strong dispersal capacity and high reproductive output, potentially enabling its spread and success in invaded regions. A greater understanding of BMSB biology and ecology and its natural enemies, the identification of the male-produced aggregation pheromone, and the recognition that BMSB disperses into crops from adjacent wooded habitats have led to the development of behavior-based integrated pest management (IPM) tactics. Much is still unknown about BMSB, and continued long-term collaborative studies are necessary to refine crop-specific IPM programs and enhance biological control across invaded landscapes.
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            A critical review of plant protection tools for reducing pesticide use on grapevine and new perspectives for the implementation of IPM in viticulture

             I Pertot,  T. Caffi,  V Rossi (2017)
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              Biology and management of grape phylloxera.

              Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), is a worldwide pest of grapevines. Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Other conditions influence expression of the life cycle. Hosts and conditions similarly affect life table performance. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soilborne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine, though the latter has not been well studied. Resistant rootstocks derived from native American Vitis are the primary control tool. The insect varies genetically and relative to performance on hosts. Use of insecticides is limited in effect, and other control methods are not proven. More research on the biology, ecology, and management of phylloxera is needed.

                Author and article information

                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                07 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 12
                : 5
                [1 ]Department of Sustainable Crop Production (DI.PRO.VE.S.), Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza, Italy; letizia.mondani@ 123456unicatt.it (L.M.); roberta.palumbo@ 123456unicatt.it (R.P.)
                [2 ]School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece; dimtsi@ 123456aua.gr
                [3 ]School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agricultural Zoology and Entomology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece; dperdikis@ 123456aua.gr
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: emanuele.mazzoni@ 123456unicatt.it (E.M.); paola.battilani@ 123456unicatt.it (P.B.); Tel.: +39-0523-599-237 (E.M.); +39-0523-599-254 (P.B.)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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