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      Maternal glucose levels during pregnancy and childhood adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-up Study

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          Abstract

          Maternal type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and gestational diabetes is associated with childhood adiposity; however, associations of lower maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity, independent of maternal BMI, remain less clear. The objective was to examine associations of maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) cohort. The HAPO Study was an observational epidemiological international multi-ethnic investigation that established strong associations of glucose levels during pregnancy with multiple adverse perinatal outcomes. The HAPO Follow-up Study (HAPO FUS) included 4832 children from ten HAPO centres whose mothers had a 75 g OGTT at ~28 weeks gestation 10–14 years earlier, with glucose values blinded to participants and clinical caregivers. The primary outcome was child adiposity, including: (1) being overweight/obese according to sex- and age-specific cut-offs based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria; (2) IOTF-defined obesity only; and (3) measurements >85th percentile for sum of skinfolds, waist circumference and per cent body fat. Primary predictors were maternal OGTT and HbA 1c values during pregnancy. Fully adjusted models that included maternal BMI at pregnancy OGTT indicated positive associations between maternal glucose predictors and child adiposity outcomes. For one SD difference in pregnancy glucose and HbA 1c measures, ORs for each child adiposity outcome were in the range of 1.05–1.16 for maternal fasting glucose, 1.11–1.19 for 1 h glucose, 1.09–1.21 for 2 h glucose and 1.12–1.21 for HbA 1c . Associations were significant, except for associations of maternal fasting glucose with offspring being overweight/obese or having waist circumference >85th percentile. Linearity was confirmed in all adjusted models. Exploratory sex-specific analyses indicated generally consistent associations for boys and girls. Exposure to higher levels of glucose in utero is independently associated with childhood adiposity, including being overweight/obese, obesity, skinfold thickness, per cent body fat and waist circumference. Glucose levels less than those diagnostic of diabetes are associated with greater childhood adiposity; this may have implications for long-term metabolic health.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia.

          The purpose of this study was to determine how the range of measured maternal glycemia in pregnancy relates to risk of obesity in childhood. Universal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening (a 50-g glucose challenge test [GCT]) was performed in two regions (Northwest and Hawaii) of a large diverse HMO during 1995-2000, and GDM was diagnosed/treated using a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. Measured weight in offspring (n = 9,439) was ascertained 5-7 years later to calculate sex-specific weight-for-age percentiles using U.S. norms (1963-1994 standard) and then classified by maternal positive GCT (1 h >or= 7.8 mmol/l) and OGTT results (1 or >or=2 of the 4 time points abnormal: fasting, 1 h, 2 h, or 3 h by Carpenter and Coustan and NDDG criteria). There was a positive trend for increasing childhood obesity at age 5-7 years (P < 0.0001; 85th and 95th percentiles) across the range of increasing maternal glucose screen values, which remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal weight gain, maternal age, parity, ethnicity, and birth weight. The risk of childhood obesity in offspring of mothers with GDM by NDDG criteria (treated) was attenuated compared with the risks for the groups with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia (untreated). The relationships were similar among Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Stratification by birth weight also revealed these effects in children of normal birth weight (
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            Banting Lecture 1980. Of pregnancy and progeny.

             N Freinkel (1980)
            A profile characteristic of fuel economy in the mother during normal pregnancy has been delineated. The evidence indicates that pregnancy changes the metabolism of every class of foodstuff. The mechanisms by which the conceptus may be implicated are reviewed. The gestational interactions create a pattern of "accelerated starvation" whenever food is withheld, especially in late pregnancy, and they tend to "facilitate anabolism" when food is ingested. The consequent heightened metabolic oscillations during the shuttlings from fed to fasted state provide a basis for more aggressive therapy with exogenous insulin when endogenous insulin is lacking in pregnancy. It is emphasized that developing fetal structures may be exquisitely attuned to fine alterations in maternal fuel economy and that pregnancy complicated by diabetes may merely exaggerate these normal dependencies since maternal insulin affects all maternal fuels. The manifest changes in the offspring of mothers with even the mildest limitations in insulin reserve, i.e., gestational diabetes, attest to the sensitivity of the relationships. It is suggested that concepts of teratogenesis should be expanded to include alterations occurring subsequent to organogenesis during the differentiation and proliferation of fetal cells. Such changes could cause long-range effects upon behavioral, anthropometric, and metabolic functions. It is hypothesized that all of these could constitute expressions of fuel-mediated teratogenesis and that the potentialities should be incorporated into any evaluation of the outcome of pregnancy in gestations attended by disturbances in maternal fuel metabolism.
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              Perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity and metabolic dysregulation.

              Childhood obesity has increased significantly in recent decades. The objective was to examine the perinatal risk factors related to childhood obesity. In a prospective study, 89 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offspring were evaluated at birth and at 8.8 +/- 1.8 y. At birth, obstetrical data, parental anthropometric measures, and neonatal body composition were assessed; at follow-up, diet and activity were assessed and laboratory studies were conducted. Weight was classified by using weight for age and sex, and body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In childhood, data were analyzed as tertiles and prediction models were developed by using logistic and stepwise regression. No significant differences in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention weight percentiles, body composition, and most metabolic measures were observed between children of mothers with NGT and GDM at follow-up. Children in the upper tertile for weight had greater energy intake (P = 0.02), skinfold thickness (P = 0.0001), and leptin concentrations (P 30 (odds ratio: 3.75; 95% CI: 1.39, 10.10; P = 0.009) and for percentage body fat was maternal pregravid BMI >30 (odds ratio: 5.45; 95% CI: 1.62, 18.41; P = 0.006). Maternal pregravid BMI, independent of maternal glucose status or birth weight, was the strongest predictor of childhood obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetologia
                Diabetologia
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0012-186X
                1432-0428
                April 2019
                January 15 2019
                April 2019
                : 62
                : 4
                : 598-610
                Article
                10.1007/s00125-018-4809-6
                6421132
                30648193
                © 2019

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