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      A clinical decision support system for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis at a general hospital in a middle-income country *,** Translated title: Sistema de suporte à decisão clínica para um programa para profilaxia de tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral de um país de renda média

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE:

          To determine the impact that implementing a combination of a computer-based clinical decision support system and a program of training seminars has on the use of appropriate prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE).

          METHODS:

          We conducted a cross-sectional study in two phases (prior to and after the implementation of the new VTE prophylaxis protocol) in order to evaluate the impact that the combined strategy had on the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis. The study was conducted at Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, a general hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. We included clinical and surgical patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalized for ≥ 48 h. The pre-implementation and post-implementation phase samples comprised 262 and 261 patients, respectively.

          RESULTS:

          The baseline characteristics of the two samples were similar, including the distribution of patients by risk level. Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we found that the overall use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased from 46.2% to 57.9% (p = 0.01). Looking at specific patient populations, we observed that the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased more dramatically among cancer patients (from 18.1% to 44.1%; p = 0.002) and among patients with three or more risk factors (from 25.0% to 42.9%; p = 0.008), two populations that benefit most from prophylaxis.

          CONCLUSIONS:

          It is possible to increase the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis in economically constrained settings through the use of a computerized protocol adhered to by trained professionals. The underutilization of prophylaxis continues to be a major problem, indicative of the need for ongoing improvement in the quality of inpatient care.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO:

          Determinar o impacto da implantação de um sistema informatizado de suporte à decisão clínica combinado com seminários instrucionais na utilização de profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa (TEV) de forma adequada.

          MÉTODOS:

          Estudo transversal em duas fases (antes e depois da implantação de um novo protocolo de profilaxia para TEV) para avaliar o impacto que a estratégia combinada teve na utilização adequada da profilaxia para TEV. O estudo foi conduzido no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, um hospital geral localizado em Porto Alegre (RS). Foram incluídos pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos com mais de 18 anos com tempo de hospitalização ≥48 h. Nas fases pré e pós-implantação, foram incluídos 262 e 261 pacientes, respectivamente.

          RESULTADOS:

          As características de base das duas amostras foram semelhantes, inclusive em relação à distribuição dos pacientes por nível de risco. Comparando-se os períodos pré e pós-implantação, verificou-se que a adequação da profilaxia para TEV aumentou de 46,2% para 57,9% (p = 0,01). Ao se observar populações específicas de pacientes, o uso adequado da profilaxia para TVE aumentou dramaticamente em pacientes com câncer (de 18,1% para 44,1%; p = 0,002) e em pacientes com três ou mais fatores de risco (de 25,0% para 42,9%; p = 0,008), populações essas que mais se beneficiam da profilaxia.

          CONCLUSÕES:

          É possível aumentar o uso de profilaxia adequada para TEV em cenários economicamente desfavoráveis através do uso de protocolos informatizados e de profissionais treinados. A subutilização da profilaxia permanece como um problema importante, destacando a necessidade da melhora continuada na qualidade da assistência hospitalar.

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          Most cited references 78

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          • Article: not found

          Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).

          This article discusses the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do or do not outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggestions imply that individual patient values may lead to different choices (for a full discussion of the grading, see the "Grades of Recommendation" chapter by Guyatt et al). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: we recommend that every hospital develop a formal strategy that addresses the prevention of VTE (Grade 1A). We recommend against the use of aspirin alone as thromboprophylaxis for any patient group (Grade 1A), and we recommend that mechanical methods of thromboprophylaxis be used primarily for patients at high bleeding risk (Grade 1A) or possibly as an adjunct to anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2A). For patients undergoing major general surgery, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH), or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend routine thromboprophylaxis for all patients undergoing major gynecologic surgery or major, open urologic procedures (Grade 1A for both groups), with LMWH, LDUH, fondaparinux, or intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC). For patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty, we recommend one of the following three anticoagulant agents: LMWH, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist (VKA); international normalized ratio (INR) target, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0 (each Grade 1A). For patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (HFS), we recommend the routine use of fondaparinux (Grade 1A), LMWH (Grade 1B), a VKA (target INR, 2.5; range, 2.0 to 3.0) [Grade 1B], or LDUH (Grade 1B). We recommend that patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty or HFS receive thromboprophylaxis for a minimum of 10 days (Grade 1A); for hip arthroplasty and HFS, we recommend continuing thromboprophylaxis > 10 days and up to 35 days (Grade 1A). We recommend that all major trauma and all spinal cord injury (SCI) patients receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A). In patients admitted to hospital with an acute medical illness, we recommend thromboprophylaxis with LMWH, LDUH, or fondaparinux (each Grade 1A). We recommend that, on admission to the ICU, all patients be assessed for their risk of VTE, and that most receive thromboprophylaxis (Grade 1A).
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            Closing the gap between research and practice: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions to promote the implementation of research findings. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group.

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              • Article: not found

              Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in the acute hospital care setting (ENDORSE study): a multinational cross-sectional study.

              Information about the variation in the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and in prophylaxis practices around the world is scarce. The ENDORSE (Epidemiologic International Day for the Evaluation of Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in the Acute Hospital Care Setting) study is a multinational cross-sectional survey designed to assess the prevalence of VTE risk in the acute hospital care setting, and to determine the proportion of at-risk patients who receive effective prophylaxis. All hospital inpatients aged 40 years or over admitted to a medical ward, or those aged 18 years or over admitted to a surgical ward, in 358 hospitals across 32 countries were assessed for risk of VTE on the basis of hospital chart review. The 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based consensus guidelines were used to assess VTE risk and to determine whether patients were receiving recommended prophylaxis. 68 183 patients were enrolled; 30 827 (45%) were categorised as surgical, and 37 356 (55%) as medical. On the basis of ACCP criteria, 35 329 (51.8%; 95% CI 51.4-52.2; between-country range 35.6-72.6) patients were judged to be at risk for VTE, including 19 842 (64.4%; 63.8-64.9; 44.1-80.2) surgical patients and 15 487 (41.5%; 41.0-42.0; 21.1-71.2) medical patients. Of the surgical patients at risk, 11 613 (58.5%; 57.8-59.2; 0.2-92.1) received ACCP-recommended VTE prophylaxis, compared with 6119 (39.5%; 38.7-40.3; 3.1-70.4) at-risk medical patients. A large proportion of hospitalised patients are at risk for VTE, but there is a low rate of appropriate prophylaxis. Our data reinforce the rationale for the use of hospital-wide strategies to assess patients' VTE risk and to implement measures that ensure that at-risk patients receive appropriate prophylaxis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Preceptor for the Internal Medicine Residency Program
                Role: Physician Head of Quality Improvement Projects
                Role: Preceptor for the Internal Medicine Residency Program
                Role: Internist
                Role: Internist
                Role: Internist
                Role: Full Professor
                Journal
                J Bras Pneumol
                J Bras Pneumol
                Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia : Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia
                1806-3713
                1806-3756
                Mar-Apr 2013
                Mar-Apr 2013
                : 39
                : 2
                : 138-146
                Affiliations
                Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital and Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul School of Medicine, Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Fernanda Fuzinatto Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, Serviço de Medicina Interna Avenida Francisco Trein, 596, Cristo Redentor CEP 91350-200, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Tel. 55 51 3357-2000 E-mail: ferfuzi@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                10.1590/S1806-37132013000200004
                4075831
                23670498

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Article

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