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      Non-Hemodynamically Significant Renal Artery Stenosis Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Persons with Ischemic Heart Disease

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Recently, we reported that small renal arteries, defined by a low reference diameter (RD) or minimal luminal diameter (MD), are independently associated with a low GFR, resistant hypertension, and onset of contrast-induced nephropathy and suggested a post-hoc analysis of CORAL trial based on RD categories. Here we hypothesized that RD and MD are markers of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors and tested whether low RD and MD could impact the prognosis of patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods: Prospective cohort study. We used proportional hazards models to analyze the first onset of cardiovascular events in relation with RD, MD, or percentage of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in those with low-to-moderate RAS (10-70%) (n = 181). Results: During the median follow-up of 4.5 (range, 0.1-5) years, 27.8% participants (n = 623; mean age, 64 years; 29% women) experienced a cardiovascular event (35.4% in those with RAS 10-70%). The presence of low-to-moderate RAS was associated with cardiovascular events. In these subjects, those with low MD were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events (MD >4.2 mm, HR: 1; MD 3.2-4.2 mm, HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 0.74-3.72, p = 0.22; MD <3.2 mm, HR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.65-8.40, p = 0.002). When MD was added to a standard risk-factor model, risk prediction improvement was by 4.1%. Results were qualitatively similar if MD was replaced by RD or percentage of stenosis, but with smaller improvement of risk prediction and model fit. Conclusions: In patients with ischemic heart disease and low-to-moderate RAS, MD is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events, improves risk prediction, and may represent a valuable biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 13

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          Revascularization versus medical therapy for renal-artery stenosis.

          Percutaneous revascularization of the renal arteries improves patency in atherosclerotic renovascular disease, yet evidence of a clinical benefit is limited. In a randomized, unblinded trial, we assigned 806 patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease either to undergo revascularization in addition to receiving medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. The primary outcome was renal function, as measured by the reciprocal of the serum creatinine level (a measure that has a linear relationship with creatinine clearance). Secondary outcomes were blood pressure, the time to renal and major cardiovascular events, and mortality. The median follow-up was 34 months. During a 5-year period, the rate of progression of renal impairment (as shown by the slope of the reciprocal of the serum creatinine level) was -0.07x10(-3) liters per micromole per year in the revascularization group, as compared with -0.13x10(-3) liters per micromole per year in the medical-therapy group, a difference favoring revascularization of 0.06x10(-3) liters per micromole per year (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.002 to 0.13; P=0.06). Over the same time, the mean serum creatinine level was 1.6 micromol per liter (95% CI, -8.4 to 5.2 [0.02 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.06]) lower in the revascularization group than in the medical-therapy group. There was no significant between-group difference in systolic blood pressure; the decrease in diastolic blood pressure was smaller in the revascularization group than in the medical-therapy group. The two study groups had similar rates of renal events (hazard ratio in the revascularization group, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.40; P=0.88), major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.19; P=0.61), and death (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.18; P=0.46). Serious complications associated with revascularization occurred in 23 patients, including 2 deaths and 3 amputations of toes or limbs. We found substantial risks but no evidence of a worthwhile clinical benefit from revascularization in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59586944.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Stenting and medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis.

            Atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis is a common problem in the elderly. Despite two randomized trials that did not show a benefit of renal-artery stenting with respect to kidney function, the usefulness of stenting for the prevention of major adverse renal and cardiovascular events is uncertain. We randomly assigned 947 participants who had atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis and either systolic hypertension while taking two or more antihypertensive drugs or chronic kidney disease to medical therapy plus renal-artery stenting or medical therapy alone. Participants were followed for the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular and renal events (a composite end point of death from cardiovascular or renal causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, progressive renal insufficiency, or the need for renal-replacement therapy). Over a median follow-up period of 43 months (interquartile range, 31 to 55), the rate of the primary composite end point did not differ significantly between participants who underwent stenting in addition to receiving medical therapy and those who received medical therapy alone (35.1% and 35.8%, respectively; hazard ratio with stenting, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.17; P=0.58). There were also no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of the individual components of the primary end point or in all-cause mortality. During follow-up, there was a consistent modest difference in systolic blood pressure favoring the stent group (-2.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, -4.4 to -0.2; P=0.03). Renal-artery stenting did not confer a significant benefit with respect to the prevention of clinical events when added to comprehensive, multifactorial medical therapy in people with atherosclerotic renal-artery stenosis and hypertension or chronic kidney disease. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00081731.).
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              Plasma norepinephrine predicts survival and incident cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease.

              Sympathetic tone is consistently raised in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We therefore tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation is associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in a cohort of 228 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis who did not have congestive heart failure at baseline and who had left ventricular ejection fraction >35%. The plasma concentration of norepinephrine (NE) was used as a measure of sympathetic activity. Plasma NE exceeded the upper limit of the normal range (cutoff 3.54 nmol/L) in 102 dialysis patients (45%). In a multivariate Cox regression model that included all univariate predictors of death as well as the use of sympathicoplegic agents and beta-blockers, plasma NE proved to be an independent predictor of this outcome (hazard ratio [1-nmol/L increase in plasma NE]: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14, P=0.03). Similarly, plasma NE emerged as an independent predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [1-nmol/L increase in plasma NE] 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.15, P=0.01) in a model that included previous cardiovascular events, pulse pressure, age, diabetes, smoking, and use of sympathicoplegic agents and beta-blockers. The adjusted relative risk for cardiovascular complications in patients with plasma NE >75th percentile was 1.92 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.07) times higher than in those below this threshold (P=0.006). Sympathetic nerve overactivity is associated with mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD. Controlled trials with antiadrenergic drugs are needed to determine whether interference with the sympathetic system could reduce the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                December 2014
                09 December 2014
                : 40
                : 5
                : 468-477
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Catania, bDivision of Nephrology, Cannizzaro Hospital, and cDepartment of Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; dDepartment of Pharmacology, HDpital Europ3en Georges Pompidou, APHP, INSERM U970 and Universit3 Paris-Descartes, Paris, France
                Author notes
                *Luca Zanoli, Department of Internal Medicine, Policlinico Universitario, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia, IT-95100 Catania (Italy), E-Mail zanoli.rastelli@gmail.com
                Article
                368913 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:468-477
                10.1159/000368913
                25503847
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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