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      Early postoperative enteral nutrition with arginine-omega-3 fatty acids and ribonucleic acid-supplemented diet versus placebo in cancer patients : An immunologic evaluation of Impact Registered Trademark

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          Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces postoperative septic complications. The results of a meta-analysis.

          This two-part meta-analysis combined data from eight prospective randomized trials designed to compare the nutritional efficacy of early enteral (TEN) and parenteral (TPN) nutrition in high-risk surgical patients. The combined data gave sufficient patient numbers (TEN, n = 118; TPN, n = 112) to adequately address whether route of substrate delivery affected septic complication incidence. Phase I (dropouts excluded) meta-analysis confirmed data homogeneity across study sites, that TEN and TPN groups were comparable, and that significantly fewer TEN patients experienced septic complications (TEN, 18%; TPN, 35%; p = 0.01). Phase II meta-analysis, an intent-to-treat analysis (dropouts included), confirmed that fewer TEN patients developed septic complications. Further breakdown by patient type showed that all trauma and blunt trauma subgroups had the most significant reduction in septic complications when fed enterally. In conclusion, this meta-analysis attests to the feasibility of early postoperative TEN in high-risk surgical patients and that these patients have reduced septic morbidity rates compared with those administered TPN.
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            Immune and metabolic effects of arginine in the surgical patient.

            Arginine enhances immune function and promotes nitrogen retention in animal models, but its immunomodulatory effects in surgical patients are unknown. This randomized, prospective trial evaluated the immune and metabolic effects of supplemental L-arginine (25 g/day, n = 16) or isonitrogenous L-glycine (43 g/day, n = 14) in 30 cancer patients undergoing major operation. Two groups of patients received either arginine or glycine for 7 days after surgery as a supplement to a graduated enteral diet. Nitrogen balance was measured daily, and immune parameters were determined both before and after surgery, on Days 1, 4, and 7. The T-lymphocyte response to concanavalin A (con A) and PHA and dual marker phenotype analysis of lymphocyte (CD2, CD4, CD4/DR, CD8, CD8/DR) and macrophage (M3/DR) subsets were determined. Mean age, degree of preoperative weight loss, disease stage, number of perioperative transfusions, and calorie and nitrogen intake were similar for the groups studied. Mean daily nitrogen balance (-2.3 g/day in the arginine group vs. -3.9 g/day in the glycine group) was not significantly different between the two groups, but positive mean nitrogen balance was achieved only in the arginine group between Days 5 and 7 after surgery. Supplemental arginine significantly enhanced the mean T-lymphocyte response (stimulation index) to con A from 45 +/- 26 on postoperative Day 1 to 72 +/- 47 and 87 +/- 49 on postoperative Days 4 and 7, compared with the values of 29 +/- 15, 27 +/- 20, and 33 +/- 34 in the glycine group at the same time points, respectively. Supplemental arginine increased mean CD4 phenotype (% T-cells) on postoperative Days 1 and 7 from 25 +/- 9 to 43 +/- 14, compared with the values of 30 +/- 14 and 29 +/- 13 in the glycine group (p less than 0.05). The beneficial effect of arginine on the immune system appeared distinct from its more moderate effect on nitrogen metabolism. As a nutrient substrate, arginine was nontoxic, and may benefit surgical patients who are at increased risk of infection.
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              Differential Effects of Three Enteral Dietary Regimens on Selected Outcome Variables in Burn Patients

              A modular tube feeding recipe (MTF) was designed to meet the unique nutritional needs of burn patients, applying principles previously documented in our burned guinea pig model. MTF, a high-protein, low-fat, linoleic acid-restricted formulation is enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, arginine, cysteine, histidine, vitamin A, zinc, and ascorbic acid. Fifty patients, 3 to 76 years of age with burns ranging from 10 to 89% total body surface area were prospectively randomized into three groups which blindly compared MTF to two enteral regimens widely utilized in the nutritional support of burns. Age, percent total and third-degree burn, resting energy expenditure, and calorie and protein intake were similar in all groups. Data analysis demonstrated significant superiority of MTF in the reduction of wound infection (p less than 0.03) and length of stay/percent burn (p less than 0.02). MTF was also associated with a decreased incidence of diarrhea, improved glucose tolerance, lower serum triglycerides, reduced total number of infectious episodes and trends toward improved preservation of muscle mass, although statistical significance was not achieved. Seventy percent of deaths occurred in the group supported with an inherently large dose of fat and linoleic acid. Combining these observations, it is believed that MTF is effective in modulating an improved response to burn injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Critical Care Medicine
                Critical Care Medicine
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0090-3493
                1995
                April 1995
                : 23
                : 4
                : 652-659
                Article
                10.1097/00003246-199504000-00012
                d85ab284-3ae5-4927-aea3-bee079b5bf94
                © 1995
                History

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