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      The Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Clinical Outcomes after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents for Left Main Distal Bifurcation Lesions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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          Abstract

          Background: The impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main (ULM) distal bifurcation lesions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly understood in the era of drug-eluting stents (DESs). Objective: We assessed the impact of DM on clinical outcomes after PCI for ULM distal bifurcation lesions in CKD patients compared to patients without DM. Methods: We identified 1,832 consecutive patients who underwent PCI for ULM lesions at New Tokyo Hospital, Matsudo, Japan, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, and EMO-GVM, Centro Cuore Columbus, Milan, Italy between January 2005 and August 2015. Of the 1,832 patients, 1,391 were treated with DESs. We excluded 750 patients without CKD and 89 hemodialysis patients. Finally, 552 patients with CKD were included: 219 with DM (DM group) and 333 without DM (no DM group). The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) at 5 years. TLF was defined as a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR), and myocardial infarction. Results: Patients in the DM group were more likely to have hypertension, dyslipidemia, peripheral artery disease, and lower ejection fraction and were more frequently using insulin for DM. The TLF rate during the follow-up period was significantly higher in the DM than in the no DM group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–2.13; p = 0.023). Cardiac mortality was comparable between both groups (adjusted HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.63–1.95; p = 0.71). The TLR rate was significantly higher in the DM group than in the no DM group (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% CI 1.12–2.54; p = 0.012). Conclusion: DM is strongly associated with adverse event after PCI for ULM distal bifurcation lesions in CKD patients compared to those without DM.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Sirolimus-eluting stents versus standard stents in patients with stenosis in a native coronary artery.

          Preliminary reports of studies involving simple coronary lesions indicate that a sirolimus-eluting stent significantly reduces the risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary revascularization. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard stent in 1058 patients at 53 centers in the United States who had a newly diagnosed lesion in a native coronary artery. The coronary disease in these patients was complex because of the frequent presence of diabetes (in 26 percent of patients), the high percentage of patients with longer lesions (mean, 14.4 mm), and small vessels (mean, 2.80 mm). The primary end point was failure of the target vessel (a composite of death from cardiac causes, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization of the target vessel) within 270 days. The rate of failure of the target vessel was reduced from 21.0 percent with a standard stent to 8.6 percent with a sirolimus-eluting stent (P<0.001)--a reduction that was driven largely by a decrease in the frequency of the need for revascularization of the target lesion (16.6 percent in the standard-stent group vs. 4.1 percent in the sirolimus-stent group, P<0.001). The frequency of neointimal hyperplasia within the stent was also decreased in the group that received sirolimus-eluting stents, as assessed by both angiography and intravascular ultrasonography. Subgroup analyses revealed a reduction in the rates of angiographic restenosis and target-lesion revascularization in all subgroups examined. In this randomized clinical trial involving patients with complex coronary lesions, the use of a sirolimus-eluting stent had a consistent treatment effect, reducing the rates of restenosis and associated clinical events in all subgroups analyzed. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part I.

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              Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).

              Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, and the presence of CKD worsens outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is associated with specific risk factors. Emerging evidence indicates that the pathology and manifestation of CVD differ in the presence of CKD. During a clinical update conference convened by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), an international group of experts defined the current state of knowledge and the implications for patient care in important topic areas, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, and sudden cardiac death. Although optimal strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and management of these complications likely should be modified in the presence of CKD, the evidence base for decision making is limited. Trials targeting CVD in patients with CKD have a large potential to improve outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2020
                December 2020
                07 September 2020
                : 10
                : 6
                : 382-391
                Affiliations
                aInterventional Cardiology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
                bInterventional Cardiology Unit, New Tokyo Hospital, Chiba, Japan
                cDepartment of Cardiology, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu, Japan
                dMaria Cecilia Hospital, GVM, Care and Research, Cotignola (RA) and EMO-GVM, Centro Cuore Columbus, Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                *Yusuke Watanabe, Interventional Cardiology Unit, New Tokyo Hospital, 1271 Wanagaya, Matsudo, Chiba 270-2232 (Japan), yusukeltcr@yahoo.co.jp, Antonio Colombo, Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM, Care and Research, Cotignola (RA) and EMO-GVM, Centro Cuore Columbus, Via Michelangelo Buonarroti, 48, IT–20145 Milan (Italy), acolombo50@me.com
                Article
                508465 Cardiorenal Med 2020;10:382–391
                10.1159/000508465
                32894836
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Article

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