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      Efecto de la refrigeración sobre la motilidad, Integridad de membrana acrosomal y reacción acrosomal en espermatozoides caninos

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          Abstract

          Métodos de preservación de espermatozoides mediante la refrigeración o el congelamiento han sido desarrollados para espermatozoides caninos; sin embargo, la tasa de fecundación artificial es baja, posiblemente por daños celulares aún no determinados. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la refrigeración sobre la motilidad, actividad mitocondrial, integridad de membrana acrosomal y reacción acrosomal en espermatozoides caninos incubados en tres medios distintos (Ferp Talp, CCMm, Sp Talp), utilizando nuevas metodologías (Mito Tracker, Lyso Tracker, SBTI). Los resultados indicaron una disminución significativa (p<0.05) en la motilidad, viabilidad e integridad del acrosoma en espermatozoides refrigerados en comparación con los frescos; así como una dinámica de reacción diferente en espermatozoides refrigerados respecto a los frescos. Por otra parte, los medios Sp Talp y CCMm dieron mejores resultados en mantenimiento de la motilidad, actividad mitocondrial e integridad de membrana acrosomal.

          Translated abstract

          Preservation methods of spermatozoa using refrigeration have been developed for canine sperm; however, the rate of fertilization is still low, possibly due to cell damage for unknown reasons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of refrigeration upon motility, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal membrane integrity, and acrosomal reaction in dog sperm incubated in three culture media (Ferp Talp, CCMm, Sp Talp) using new methodologies (Mito Tracker, Lyso Tracker, SBTI). The results indicated that exist a significant decrease (p<0.05) in motility, mitochondrial activity, and acrosomal membrane integrity in refrigerated sperm in comparison with fresh sperm. Also, the dynamic of acrosomal reaction was different in refrigerated sperm in comparison with fresh sperm. The Sp Talp and CCMm media showed the best results in holding the mitochondrial activity and acrosomal membrane integrity.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Mitochondria and apoptosis.

          A variety of key events in apoptosis focus on mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators (such as cytochrome c), changes in electron transport, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, altered cellular oxidation-reduction, and participation of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. The different signals that converge on mitochondria to trigger or inhibit these events and their downstream effects delineate several major pathways in physiological cell death.
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            Capacitation of bovine sperm by heparin.

            Capacitation of bovine sperm was evaluated by determining the ability of sperm to fertilize bovine oocytes in vitro and to undergo an acrosome reaction upon exposure to lysophosphatidylcholine (LC). Incubation of sperm with heparin (10 micrograms/ml) increased the percentage of oocytes fertilized, but this required exposing sperm to heparin for at least 4 h before adding them to oocytes. There was no effect on the percentage of motile or acrosome-reacted sperm after exposure of noncapacitated sperm to 100 micrograms/ml LC for 15 min. When sperm were incubated for 4 h with heparin, exposure to 100 micrograms/ml LC for 15 min had no effect on the percentage of sperm that were motile, but the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm increased from less than 10% to over 70%. The acrosome reactions (ARs) induced by LC were synchronous, reached maximal levels within 15 min, and differed (p less than 0.001) between sperm incubated under capacitating (with heparin) and noncapacitating conditions (without heparin). The time course required for heparin to capacitate sperm as judged by in vitro fertilization and to render sperm sensitive to LC induction of the AR were found to be similar. The percentage of ARs induced by LC and percentage of oocytes fertilized by sperm were found to be heparin-dose-dependent, with the maximum responses occurring at 5-10 micrograms/ml heparin. The correlation between the mean fertilization and LC-induced AR percentages was 0.997 (p less than 0.01). These studies demonstrate capacitation of bovine sperm by heparin requires at least a 4-h exposure of sperm to heparin and suggest that plasma membrane changes prior to an AR can be detected by exposure of bovine sperm to LC.
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              Distinct caspase cascades are initiated in receptor-mediated and chemical-induced apoptosis.

              Release of cytochrome c is important in many forms of apoptosis. Recent studies of CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-induced apoptosis have implicated caspase-8 cleavage of Bid, a BH3 domain-containing proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, in this release. We now demonstrate that both receptor-induced (CD95 and tumor necrosis factor) and chemical-induced apoptosis result in a similar time-dependent activation of caspases-3, -7, -8, and -9 in Jurkat T cells and human leukemic U937 cells. In receptor-mediated apoptosis, the caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD. FMK), inhibits apoptosis prior to commitment to cell death by inhibiting the upstream activator caspase-8, cleavage of Bid, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, processing of effector caspases, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and externalization of phosphatidylserine. However, Z-VAD.FMK inhibits chemical-induced apoptosis at a stage after commitment to cell death by inhibiting the initiator caspase-9 and the resultant postmitochondrial activation of effector caspases. Cleavage of Bid but not release of cytochrome c is blocked by Z-VAD.FMK demonstrating that in chemical-induced apoptosis cytochrome c release is caspase-independent and is not mediated by activation of Bid. We propose that caspases form an integral part of the cell death-inducing mechanism in receptor-mediated apoptosis, whereas in chemical-induced apoptosis they act solely as executioners of apoptosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rivep
                Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú
                Rev. investig. vet. Perú
                Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria (Lima )
                1609-9117
                July 2005
                : 16
                : 2
                : 114-128
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Peru
                [2 ] Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Chile
                [3 ] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Peru
                [4 ] Universidad de Chile Chile
                Article
                S1609-91172005000200003
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, DAIRY & ANIMAL SCIENCE
                AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY
                ENTOMOLOGY
                ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
                ORNITHOLOGY
                VETERINARY SCIENCES
                ZOOLOGY

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