Systemic administration of α2-adrenergic agonists has been shown to protect ischemic myocardium, but the direct effects on ischemia-reperfused myocardium have not yet been clarified. This study was carried out to determine the effects of intracoronary dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in anesthetized pigs. In open-chest pigs, the left anterior descending coronary artery was perfused through an extracorporeal circuit from the carotid artery. They received intracoronary infusion of DEX at a rate of 1 ng · mL(-1) (group LD, n = 9), 10 ng · mL(-1) (group MD, n = 9), or 100 ng · mL(-1) (group HD, n = 9) of coronary blood flow or vehicle (group C, n = 12) for 30 min before ischemia. Myocardial stunning was produced by 12-min ischemia of the perfused area of left anterior descending coronary artery and 90-min reperfusion. The effect on reperfusion-induced arrhythmias was evaluated using the incidence of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after reperfusion. Regional myocardial contractility was evaluated with segment shortening (%SS). Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Dexmedetomidine significantly improved the recovery of percentage segment shortening at 90 min after reperfusion (32.6% ± 3.1% in group C, 58.2% ± 2.1% in group LD, 61.1% ± 1.8% in group MD, and 72.0% ± 2.0% in group HD). Dexmedetomidine suppressed the increase in plasma norepinephrine concentration after reperfusion. The results indicate that DEX would exert the protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury by the direct action on the myocardium, which is not mediated through the central nervous system.