6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Ursolic Acid—A Pentacyclic Triterpenoid with a Wide Spectrum of Pharmacological Activities

      review-article

      * , ,

      Molecules

      MDPI

      ursolic acid, anticancer, triterpene, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural terpene compound exhibiting many pharmaceutical properties. In this review the current state of knowledge about the health-promoting properties of this widespread, biologically active compound, as well as information about its occurrence and biosynthesis are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the application of ursolic acid as an anti-cancer agent; it is worth noticing that clinical tests suggesting the possibility of practical use of UA have already been conducted. Amongst other pharmacological properties of UA one can mention protective effect on lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, anti-inflammatory properties, anabolic effects on skeletal muscles and the ability to suppress bone density loss leading to osteoporosis. Ursolic acid also exhibits anti-microbial features against numerous strains of bacteria, HIV and HCV viruses and Plasmodium protozoa causing malaria.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 194

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2.

           Y Bakhle,  J R Vane,  R Botting (1997)
          Cyclooxygenase (COX), first purified in 1976 and cloned in 1988, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) from arachidonic acid. In 1991, several laboratories identified a product from a second gene with COX activity and called it COX-2. However, COX-2 was inducible, and the inducing stimuli included pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, implying a role for COX-2 in both inflammation and control of cell growth. The two isoforms of COX are almost identical in structure but have important differences in substrate and inhibitor selectivity and in their intracellular locations. Protective PGs, which preserve the integrity of the stomach lining and maintain normal renal function in a compromised kidney, are synthesized by COX-1. In addition to the induction of COX-2 in inflammatory lesions, it is present constitutively in the brain and spinal cord, where it may be involved in nerve transmission, particularly that for pain and fever. PGs made by COX-2 are also important in ovulation and in the birth process. The discovery of COX-2 has made possible the design of drugs that reduce inflammation without removing the protective PGs in the stomach and kidney made by COX-1. These highly selective COX-2 inhibitors may not only be anti-inflammatory but may also be active in colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.

             Jie Liu (1995)
            Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver disorders. The mechanism of hepatoprotection by these two compounds may involve the inhibition of toxicant activation and the enhancement of the body defense systems. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid have also been long-recognized to have antiinflammatory and antihyperlipidemic properties in laboratory animals, and more research is warranted to develop a therapy for patients. Recently, both compounds have been noted for their antitumor-promotion effects, which are stimulating additional research in this field. Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are relatively non-toxic, and have been used in cosmetics and health products. The possible mechanisms for the pharmacological effects and the prospects for these two compounds are discussed.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              BCL-2 family: regulators of cell death.

              An expanding family of BCL-2 related proteins share homology, clustered within four conserved regions, namely BCL-2 homology (BH1-4) domains, which control the ability of these proteins to dimerize and function as regulators of apoptosis. Moreover, BCL-XL, BCL-2, and BAX can form ion-conductive pores in artificial membranes. The BCL-2 family, comprised of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members, acts as a checkpoint upstream of CASPASES and mitochondrial dysfunction. BID and BAD possess the minimal death domain BH3, and the phosphorylation of BAD connects proximal survival signals to the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 and BCL-XL display a reciprocal pattern of expression during lymphocyte development. Gain- and loss-of-function models revealed stage-specific roles for BCL-2 and BCL-XL. BCL-2 can rescue maturation at several points of lymphocyte development. The BCL-2 family also reveals evidence for a cell-autonomous coordination between the opposing pathways of proliferation and cell death.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                19 November 2015
                November 2015
                : 20
                : 11
                : 20614-20641
                Affiliations
                Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, 36 Rakowiecka Street, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland; skapska@ 123456ibprs.pl (S.S.); marszalek@ 123456ibprs.pl (K.M.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lukasz.wozniak@ 123456ibprs.pl ; Tel.: +48-226-063-604; Fax: +48-228-490-426
                Article
                molecules-20-19721
                10.3390/molecules201119721
                6332387
                26610440
                d864ecd0-6f53-40c6-8dab-5e93c2e44344
                © 2015 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article