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      In silico sgRNA tool design for CRISPR control of quorum sensing in Acinetobacter species

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          Abstract

          CRISPR genome editing utilizes Cas9 nuclease and single guide RNA (sgRNA), which directs the nuclease to a specific site in the genome and makes a double-stranded break (DSB). Design of sgRNA for CRISPR-Cas targeting, and to promote CRISPR adaptation, uses a regulatory mechanism that ensures maximum CRISPR-Cas9 system functions when a bacterial population is at highest risk of phage infection. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most regularly identified gram-negative bacterium infecting patients. Recent reports have demonstrated that the extent of diseases caused by A. baumannii is expanding and, in a few cases, now surpasses the quantity of infections caused by P. aeruginosa. Most Acinetobacter strains possess biofilm-forming ability, which plays a major role in virulence and drug resistance. Biofilm bacteria use quorum sensing, a cell-to-cell communication process, to activate gene expression. Many genes are involved in biofilm formation and the mechanism to disrupt the biofilm network is still not clearly understood. In this study, we performed in silico gene editing to exploit the AbaI gene, responsible for biofilm formation. The study explored different tools available for genome editing to create gene knockouts, selecting the A. baumannii AbaI gene as a target.

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          Defining and improving the genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases.

          CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases are a transformative technology for biology, genetics and medicine owing to the simplicity with which they can be programmed to cleave specific DNA target sites in living cells and organisms. However, to translate these powerful molecular tools into safe, effective clinical applications, it is of crucial importance to carefully define and improve their genome-wide specificities. Here, we outline our state-of-the-art understanding of target DNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases, methods to determine and improve their specificities, and key considerations for how to evaluate and reduce off-target effects for research and therapeutic applications.
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            Isolation and characterization of an autoinducer synthase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

            The opportunistic human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii strain M2 was found to produce distinct acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals based on the use of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens traG-lacZ biosensor. An A. baumannii gene, designated abaI, was cloned and directed AHL production in recombinant Escherichia coli. The AbaI protein was similar to members of the LuxI family of autoinducer synthases and was predicted to be the only autoinducer synthase encoded by A. baumannii. The primary AHL signal directed by AbaI was identified by mass spectrometry as being N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-L-HSL (3-hydroxy-C(12)-HSL). Minor amounts of at least five additional AHLs were also identified. The expression of abaI at the transcriptional level was activated by ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatants or by synthetic 3-hydroxy-C(12)-HSL. An abaI::Km mutant failed to produce any detectable AHL signals and was impaired in biofilm development.
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              CRISPR-ERA: a comprehensive design tool for CRISPR-mediated gene editing, repression and activation

              Summary: The CRISPR/Cas9 system was recently developed as a powerful and flexible technology for targeted genome engineering, including genome editing (altering the genetic sequence) and gene regulation (without altering the genetic sequence). These applications require the design of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that are efficient and specific. However, this remains challenging, as it requires the consideration of many criteria. Several sgRNA design tools have been developed for gene editing, but currently there is no tool for the design of sgRNAs for gene regulation. With accumulating experimental data on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene editing and regulation, we implement a comprehensive computational tool based on a set of sgRNA design rules summarized from these published reports. We report a genome-wide sgRNA design tool and provide an online website for predicting sgRNAs that are efficient and specific. We name the tool CRISPR-ERA, for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-mediated editing, repression, and activation (ERA). Availability and implementation: http://CRISPR-ERA.stanford.edu. Contact: stanley.qi@stanford.edu or xwwang@tsinghua.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                11 April 2018
                June 2018
                11 April 2018
                : 5
                : 2
                : 123-129
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Biotechnology, Vignan's Foundation for Science Technology and Research, Vadlamudi, Guntur 522213, India
                [b ]Department of Biotechnology, Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore, India
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Vignan's Foundation for Science Technology and Research, Vadlamudi, India. youngscholar2013@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(18)30056-4
                10.1016/j.gendis.2018.03.004
                6146548
                d86cacac-1650-46f6-84b2-267b3a244047
                © 2018 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 9 January 2018
                : 29 March 2018
                Categories
                Article

                abai,acinetobacter baumannii,chopchop,crispr-cas9,sgrna
                abai, acinetobacter baumannii, chopchop, crispr-cas9, sgrna

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