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      Anesthesia and postoperative analgesia during unilateral lower-extremity fracture surgeries using multiple injections through catheters beside the lumbar plexus or sciatic nerve

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          To compare the clinical effects of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for patients with unilateral lower-extremity fracture between multiple injections through catheters beside the lumbar plexus or sciatic nerve and continuous epidural analgesia.


          Seventy patients with unilateral lower-extremity fracture scheduled for internal fixation were randomly divided into group N (n = 35) and group E (n = 35). Patients in group N received combined lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block, then a catheter was inserted into the psoas compartment or beside the sciatic nerve, according to the surgical site, and 25 mL 0.375% ropivacaine was injected into patients in group N through the peripheral nerve catheter 12 hours after operation. Patients in group E received combined spinal and epidural anesthesia, and when the operation was complete kept the epidural catheter and received patient-controlled epidural analgesia with an analgesia pump.


          The visual analog scores of patients at each time point in the two groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Mean arterial pressure at 30 minutes after anesthesia and 4 hours postoperation in group E decreased significantly and was significantly lower than group N ( P < 0.01). Group E had significantly higher rate of urinary retention than group N ( P < 0.05), and the time of first food intake of patients in group N was significantly shorter than in group E ( P < 0.001).


          For patients with unilateral lower-extremity fracture receiving internal fixation, multiple injections through catheters beside the lumbar plexus or sciatic nerve can provide adequate postoperative analgesia, with very few adverse effects.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Epidural analgesia compared with peripheral nerve blockade after major knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

          The relative analgesic efficacy and side-effect profile of peripheral nerve blockade (PNB) techniques compared with lumbar epidural analgesia for major knee surgery is unclear. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized trials comparing epidural analgesia with PNB for major knee surgery. Eight studies were identified that had enrolled a total of 510 patients of whom 464 (91%) had undergone total knee joint replacement. All were small trials and none was blinded (Jadad score 1-3). PNB technique was variable: in addition to a femoral catheter (n=5), femoral single shot (n=2), or lumbar plexus catheter (n=1) techniques, sciatic blockade was performed in three trials. There was no significant difference in pain scores between epidural and PNB at 0-12 or 12-24 h, WMD 0.22 (95% CI: -0.36, 0.81), 0.05 (-1.01, 0.91), respectively, and no clinically significant difference at 24-48 h, WMD -0.35 (-0.64, -0.02). There was also no difference in morphine consumption (mg) at 0-24 h, WMD -6.25 (-18.35, 5.86). Hypotension occurred more frequently among patients who received epidurals [OR 0.19 (0.08, 0.45)], but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Two studies reported a higher incidence of urinary retention in the epidural group. Patient satisfaction was higher with PNB in two of three studies which measured this, although rehabilitation indices were similar. PNB with a femoral nerve block provides postoperative analgesia which is comparable with that obtained with an epidural technique but with an improved side-effect profile and is less likely to cause a severe neuraxial complication.
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            Postoperative analgesia after total-hip arthroplasty: Comparison of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine and single injection of femoral nerve or psoas compartment block. a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

            The authors compared the analgesic effects and quality of rehabilitation of three analgesic techniques after total-hip arthroplasty in a double-blind, randomized trial. Forty-five patients were assigned to 1 of 3 groups, patient-controlled analgesia with morphine (PCA), femoral nerve block (FNB), or psoas compartment block (PCB). At the end of the procedure performed under general anesthesia, nerve blocks using 2 mg/kg of 0.375% bupivacaine and 2 microg/kg of clonidine were performed in the FNB (n = 16) and PCB (n = 15) groups. In the recovery room, all 3 groups received initial intravenous morphine titration if their pain score was higher than 30 on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), and then a PCA device was initiated. Morphine consumption was the primary end point to assess postoperative analgesia. After extubation (H0), morphine titration was higher in the PCA group (P <.05). During the first 4 postoperative hours (H0 to H4), morphine consumption per hour and VAS pain score were lower in the PCB group (P <.05). After H4, there was no difference in morphine consumption and VAS among groups, either at rest or during mobilization. After H4, morphine consumption remained lower than 0.5 mg/h, and VAS remained lower than 30 mm in the 3 groups. In 4 patients of the PCB group, an epidural diffusion was noted. Hip mobility and length of stay in the rehabilitation center were not different among the groups. PCA is an efficient and safe analgesia technique. FNB and PCB should not be used routinely after total-hip arthroplasty.
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              Lower-extremity peripheral nerve blockade: essentials of our current understanding.


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                23 July 2013
                : 9
                : 299-302
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesia, Pomerado Hospital, Poway, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xuzhong Xu, Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, 2 Fuxue Road, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 577 8806 9790, Email xuzhong_xu@ 123456163.com
                © 2013 Zhang et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research


                sciatic nerve, lumbar plexus, catheterization, lower extremity, analgesia


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