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      Resveratrol Pretreatment Improved Heart Recovery Ability of Hyperglycemic Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in Diabetic Myocardial Infarction by Down-Regulating MicroRNA-34a

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          Abstract

          AIM: To examine the effect of resveratrol (RSV) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) under hyperglycemic conditions and on BMSCs transplantation in diabetic rats with myocardial infarction (MI).

          METHODS: In vitro, BMSCs were isolated from 3-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and cultured under hyperglycemic conditions for up to 28 days. Cell viability was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. The expression of miR-34a was measured by RT-qPCR. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of SIRT1, P21, P16, VEGF and HIF-1α. A senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay was used to examine the senescence level of each group. In vivo, a diabetes model was established by feeding rats a high-sugar and high-fat diet for 8 weeks, injecting the animals with streptozotocin (STZ) and continuing high-sugar and high-fat feeding for 4 additional weeks. Then, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) cessation was used to established the myocardial infarction (MI) models. Each group of rats was transplanted with differentially preconditioned BMSCs after myocardial infarction. Ultrasound was used to analyze cardiac function 1 and 3 weeks after the operation, and frozen heart sections were used for immunohistochemical analysis, Masson staining and CD31 measurement. In addition, ELISA analysis of serum cytokine levels was performed.

          RESULTS: This study showed that the viability of BMSCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions was decreased, the cells became senescent. Besides, an obviously increased in the expression of miR-34a was detected. Moreover, RSV preconditioning reduced the expression of miR-34a in BMSCs after high glucose stimulation and rejuvenated BMSCs under hyperglycemic conditions. Further analysis showed that the transplantation of RSV-BMSCs were benefit to heart recovery following infarction in diabetic rats, promoted proangiogenic factor release and increased arteriole and capillary densities.

          CONCLUSION: RSV rejuvenated BMSCs after chronic hyperglycemia-induced senescence by interacting with miR-34a and optimized the therapeutic effect of BMSCs on diabetes with myocardial infarction.

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          Most cited references37

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          Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

          Summary Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries—Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm), to generate cause fractions and cause-specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22·7% (21·5–23·9), representing an additional 7·61 million (7·20–8·01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7·9% (7·0–8·8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 22·2% (20·0–24·0) and the death rate by 31·8% (30·1–33·3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2·3% (0·5–4·0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13·7% (12·2–15·1) to 57·9 deaths (55·9–59·2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000–289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000–363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118·0% (88·8–148·6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36·4% (32·2–40·6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33·6% (31·2–36·1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990—neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases—were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            Paracrine mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy: current status and perspectives.

            Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of a few stem cell types to be applied in clinical practice as therapeutic agents for immunomodulation and ischemic tissue repair. In addition to their multipotent differentiation potential, a strong paracrine capacity has been proposed as the principal mechanism that contributes to tissue repair. Apart from cytokine/chemokine secretion, MSCs also display a strong capacity for mitochondrial transfer and microvesicle (exosomes) secretion in response to injury with subsequent promotion of tissue regeneration. These unique properties of MSCs make them an invaluable cell type to repair damaged tissues/organs. Although MSCs offer great promise in the treatment of degenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders, there are still many challenges to overcome prior to their widespread clinical application. Particularly, their in-depth paracrine mechanisms remain a matter for debate and exploration. This review will highlight the discovery of the paracrine mechanism of MSCs, regulation of the paracrine biology of MSCs, important paracrine factors of MSCs in modulation of tissue repair, exosome and mitochondrial transfer for tissue repair, and the future perspective for MSC-based therapy.
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              Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction.

              Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. It has been debated whether patients with diabetes who have not had myocardial infarctions should be treated as aggressively for cardiovascular risk factors as patients who have had myocardial infarctions. To address this issue, we compared the seven-year incidence of myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal) among 1373 nondiabetic subjects with the incidence among 1059 diabetic subjects, all from a Finnish population-based study. The seven-year incidence rates of myocardial infarction in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction at base line were 18.8 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively (P<0.001). The seven-year incidence rates of myocardial infarction in diabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction at base line were 45.0 percent and 20.2 percent, respectively (P<0.001). The hazard ratio for death from coronary heart disease for diabetic subjects without prior myocardial infarction as compared with nondiabetic subjects with prior myocardial infarction was not significantly different from 1.0 (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.6) after adjustment for age and sex, suggesting similar risks of infarction in the two groups. After further adjustment for total cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking, this hazard ratio remained close to 1.0 (hazard ratio, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 2.4). Our data suggest that diabetic patients without previous myocardial infarction have as high a risk of myocardial infarction as nondiabetic patients with previous myocardial infarction. These data provide a rationale for treating cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients as aggressively as in nondiabetic patients with prior myocardial infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                20 April 2021
                2021
                : 12
                : 632375
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China
                [ 2 ]Department of Cardiology, First People’s Hospital of Suqian, Suqian, China
                [ 3 ]Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China
                [ 4 ]Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China
                [ 5 ]Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Naufal Zagidullin, Bashkir State Medical University, Russia

                Reviewed by: Rajesh Katare, University of Otago, New Zealand

                Sadia Mohsin, Temple University, United States

                *Correspondence: Zhuoqi Zhang, zhuoqizhang@ 123456sina.com

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Article
                632375
                10.3389/fphar.2021.632375
                8223511
                34177568
                d880b120-b699-464c-85cb-e45c22b03fbd
                Copyright © 2021 Zhang, Wang, Gao, Xuan, Liu and Zhang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 23 November 2020
                : 18 February 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                resveratrol,microrna-34a,bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells,diabetes mellitus,myocardial infarction,senescence

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