The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopaedic surgery is now booming. Two fields of research in particular are emerging: the association of osteo-inductive factors with implantable materials; and the association of osteogenic stem cells with these materials (hybrid materials). In both cases, an understanding of the phenomena of cell adhesion and, in particular, understanding of the proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion on contact with the materials is of crucial importance. The proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion are described in this review (extracellular matrix proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, cadherins, etc.). During osteoblast/material interactions, their expression is modified according to the surface characteristics of materials. Their involvement in osteoblastic response to mechanical stimulation highlights the significance of taking them into consideration during development of future biomaterials. Finally, an understanding of the proteins involved in osteoblast adhesion opens up new possibilities for the grafting of these proteins (or synthesized peptide) onto vector materials, to increase their in vivo bioactivity or to promote cell integration within the vector material during the development of hybrid materials.