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      Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Center in Mexico City: A Prospective Cohort Study

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      Revista de investigación clínica

      Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán

      Coronavirus disease-2019, Mexico, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Cohort, Coronavirus, 2019-novel coronavirus

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Background: Regional information regarding the characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is needed for a better understanding of the pandemic. Objective: The objective of the study to describe the clinical features of COVID-19 patients diagnosed in a tertiary-care center in Mexico City and to assess differences according to the treatment setting (ambulatory vs. hospital) and to the need of intensive care (IC). Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort, including consecutive patients with COVID-19 from February 26, 2020 to April 11, 2020. Results: We identified 309 patients (140 inpatients and 169 outpatients). The median age was 43 years (interquartile range, 33-54), 59.2% men, and 18.6% healthcare workers (12.3% from our center). The median body mass index (BMI) was 29.00 kg/m2 and 39.6% had obesity. Compared to outpatients, inpatients were older, had comorbidities, cough, and dyspnea more frequently. Twenty-nine (20.7%) inpatients required treatment in the IC unit (ICU). History of diabetes (type 1 or 2) and abdominal pain were more common in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. ICU patients had higher BMIs, higher respiratory rates, and lower room-air capillary oxygen saturations. ICU patients showed a more severe inflammatory response as assessed by white blood cell count, neutrophil and platelet count, C-reactive protein, ferritin, procalcitonin, and albumin levels. By the end of the study period, 65 inpatients had been discharged because of improvement, 70 continued hospitalized, and five had died. Conclusions: Patients with comorbidities, either middle-age obese or elderly complaining of fever, cough, or dyspnea, were more likely to be admitted. At admission, patients with diabetes, high BMI, and clinical or laboratory findings consistent with a severe inflammatory state were more likely to require IC.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ric
                Revista de investigación clínica
                Rev. invest. clín.
                Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico )
                0034-8376
                2564-8896
                June 2020
                : 72
                : 3
                : 165-177
                Affiliations
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Medicine Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Infectious Diseases Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Critical Care Unit Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of General Director’s Office Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Emergency Mexico
                Mexico City orgnameInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán orgdiv1Department of Hospital Epidemiology Mexico
                Article
                S0034-83762020000300165 S0034-8376(20)07200300165
                10.24875/ric.20000211
                32584326

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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