23 January 2021
Arachis hypogaea, Flavonoids, Flavonol synthase, Leucoanthocyanidin reductase, Characterization, AhLAR, Leucoanthocyanidin reductase, AhFLS, Flavonol synthase, CHS, Chalcone synthase, CHI, Chalcone isomerase, SDR, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, ROS, reactive oxygen species, SOD, superoxide dismutase, CAT, catalase, APX, ascorbate peroxidase, Ab, absorbance, EC, extinction coefficient, CDS, coding sequences, CDD, Conserved Domain Database, ANOVA, Analysis of variance, ORF, open reading frame
Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is a potential source of bioactive compounds including flavonols and proanthocyanidins, which have gained particular interest of metabolic engineering owing to their significance in the growth, development and defense responses in plants. To gain insight of proanthocyanidins and flavonols production in A. hypogaea, Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (AhLAR) and Flavonol synthase (AhFLS) enzymes responsible for their production, have been structurally, transcriptionally and functionally characterized. Structural and functional analysis of putative protein sequence of AhFLS indicated two functional motifs 2OG-FeII_Oxy and DIOX_N , while six functional motifs belonging to the families of NAD-dependent dehydratase, 3, β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and NmrA-like family were observed in case of AhLAR. Promoter sequence analysis unraveled several promoter elements related to the development regulation, environmental stress responses and hormonal signaling. Furthermore, the expression analysis of AhFLS and AhLAR and accumulation pattern analysis of proanthocyanidins and flavonols in three selected cultivars of A. hypogaea under saline environment confirmed their role against salinity in genotype-dependent and stress level-dependent manner. Correlation studies revealed that AhFLS and AhLAR expression is not directly dependent on the antioxidant enzymes activity, biochemical and growth parameters but higher Pearson r value depicted some level of dependency. This detailed study of AhLAR and AhFLS can assist in the metabolic engineering of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to produce stress tolerant varieties and production of proanthocyanidins and flavonols at an industrial scale.