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      Molecular characterization of Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and Flavonol synthase gene in Arachis hypogaea

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          Abstract

          Arachis hypogaea (peanut) is a potential source of bioactive compounds including flavonols and proanthocyanidins, which have gained particular interest of metabolic engineering owing to their significance in the growth, development and defense responses in plants. To gain insight of proanthocyanidins and flavonols production in A. hypogaea, Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (AhLAR) and Flavonol synthase (AhFLS) enzymes responsible for their production, have been structurally, transcriptionally and functionally characterized. Structural and functional analysis of putative protein sequence of AhFLS indicated two functional motifs 2OG-FeII_Oxy and DIOX_N , while six functional motifs belonging to the families of NAD-dependent dehydratase, 3, β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and NmrA-like family were observed in case of AhLAR. Promoter sequence analysis unraveled several promoter elements related to the development regulation, environmental stress responses and hormonal signaling. Furthermore, the expression analysis of AhFLS and AhLAR and accumulation pattern analysis of proanthocyanidins and flavonols in three selected cultivars of A. hypogaea under saline environment confirmed their role against salinity in genotype-dependent and stress level-dependent manner. Correlation studies revealed that AhFLS and AhLAR expression is not directly dependent on the antioxidant enzymes activity, biochemical and growth parameters but higher Pearson r value depicted some level of dependency. This detailed study of AhLAR and AhFLS can assist in the metabolic engineering of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to produce stress tolerant varieties and production of proanthocyanidins and flavonols at an industrial scale.

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding

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              Geneious Basic: An integrated and extendable desktop software platform for the organization and analysis of sequence data

              Summary: The two main functions of bioinformatics are the organization and analysis of biological data using computational resources. Geneious Basic has been designed to be an easy-to-use and flexible desktop software application framework for the organization and analysis of biological data, with a focus on molecular sequences and related data types. It integrates numerous industry-standard discovery analysis tools, with interactive visualizations to generate publication-ready images. One key contribution to researchers in the life sciences is the Geneious public application programming interface (API) that affords the ability to leverage the existing framework of the Geneious Basic software platform for virtually unlimited extension and customization. The result is an increase in the speed and quality of development of computation tools for the life sciences, due to the functionality and graphical user interface available to the developer through the public API. Geneious Basic represents an ideal platform for the bioinformatics community to leverage existing components and to integrate their own specific requirements for the discovery, analysis and visualization of biological data. Availability and implementation: Binaries and public API freely available for download at http://www.geneious.com/basic, implemented in Java and supported on Linux, Apple OSX and MS Windows. The software is also available from the Bio-Linux package repository at http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/news/geneiousonbl. Contact: peter@biomatters.com
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
                Elsevier
                1319-562X
                2213-7106
                23 January 2021
                April 2021
                23 January 2021
                : 28
                : 4
                : 2301-2315
                Affiliations
                [a ]Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
                [b ]National Institute for Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Lehtrar Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
                Author notes
                Article
                S1319-562X(21)00024-3
                10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.024
                8071922
                33911945
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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