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      Four new species of Acalypha L. (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) from the West Indian Ocean Region

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      PhytoKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Four new species of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae, Acalyphoideae) from the Western Indian Ocean Region, based on morphological and molecular evidence, are described, illustrated, and mapped. Acalypha gillespieae sp. nov., A. leandrii sp. nov. and A. nusbaumeri sp. nov. are endemic to Madagascar, and A. mayottensis sp. nov. is known only from Mbouzi islet (Mayotte), in the Comoros Archipelago. We also describe for the first time in Acalypha the presence of membranous or chartaceous perules covering the axillary buds. Preliminary conservation assessments of the new species are also provided.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Malpighiales phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life.

          The eudicot order Malpighiales contains ∼16000 species and is the most poorly resolved large rosid clade. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in the order, we used maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and parsimony analyses of DNA sequence data from 13 gene regions, totaling 15604 bp, and representing all three genomic compartments (i.e., plastid: atpB, matK, ndhF, and rbcL; mitochondrial: ccmB, cob, matR, nad1B-C, nad6, and rps3; and nuclear: 18S rDNA, PHYC, and newly developed low-copy EMB2765). Our sampling of 190 taxa includes representatives from all families of Malpighiales. These data provide greatly increased support for the recent additions of Aneulophus, Bhesa, Centroplacus, Ploiarium, and Rafflesiaceae to Malpighiales; sister relations of Phyllanthaceae + Picrodendraceae, monophyly of Hypericaceae, and polyphyly of Clusiaceae. Oxalidales + Huaceae, followed by Celastrales are successive sisters to Malpighiales. Parasitic Rafflesiaceae, which produce the world's largest flowers, are confirmed as embedded within a paraphyletic Euphorbiaceae. Novel findings show a well-supported placement of Ctenolophonaceae with Erythroxylaceae + Rhizophoraceae, sister-group relationships of Bhesa + Centroplacus, and the exclusion of Medusandra from Malpighiales. New taxonomic circumscriptions include the addition of Bhesa to Centroplacaceae, Medusandra to Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Calophyllaceae applied to Clusiaceae subfamily Kielmeyeroideae, Peraceae applied to Euphorbiaceae subfamily Peroideae, and Huaceae included in Oxalidales.
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            Molecular phylogenetics of the giant genus Croton and tribe Crotoneae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using ITS and TRNL-TRNF DNA sequence data.

            Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of nuclear ITS and plastid trnL-F DNA sequence data are presented for the giant genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) and related taxa. Sampling comprises 88 taxa, including 78 of the estimated 1223 species and 29 of the 40 sections previously recognized of Croton. It also includes the satellite genus Moacroton and genera formerly placed in tribe Crotoneae. Croton and all sampled segregate genera form a monophyletic group sister to Brasiliocroton, with the exception of Croton sect. Astraea, which is reinstated to the genus Astraea. A small clade including Moacroton, Croton alabamensis, and C. olivaceus is sister to all other Croton species sampled. The remaining Croton species fall into three major clades. One of these is entirely New World, corresponding to sections Cyclostigma, Cascarilla, and Velamea sensu Webster. The second is entirely Old World and is sister to a third, also entirely New World clade, which is composed of at least 13 of Webster's sections of Croton. This study establishes a phylogenetic framework for future studies in the hyper-diverse genus Croton, indicates a New World origin for the genus, and will soon be used to evaluate wood anatomical, cytological, and morphological data in the Crotoneae tribe.
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              Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and ovule and seed character evolution.

               Toru Tokuoka (2007)
              A phylogenetic analysis of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto is presented using sequences from rbcL, atpB, matK and 18S rDNA from 85 species and 83 genera. The combined analysis of four molecular markers resulted in only one most parsimonious tree and also generated new supported clades, which include Euphorbioideae + Acalyphoideae s.s., subclades A2 + A3, subclades A5 + A6 and a clade uniting subclades A2-A8 within Acalyphoideae s.s. A palisadal exotegmen is a possible synapomorphy for all the Euphorbiaceae, except for the subfamily Peroideae. The presence of vascular bundles in the inner integument and a thick inner integument were shown to be synapomorphies for the clade of inaperturate and articulated crotonoids and for the large clade of Euphorbioideae, Acalyphoideae s.s., inaperturate and articulated crotonoids, respectively. Characters of the aril and vascular bundles in the outer integument are discussed. The selected embryological characters were seen to be highly correlated with the molecular phylogeny. When the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis of a previous study and this study were adjusted along with the selected embryological characters, all clades within Euphorbiaceae were supported except for a clade comprising Euphorbioideae + Acalyphoideae s.s. + inaperturate crotonoids + articulated crotonoids + Adenoclineae s.l. and a clade uniting subclades A4-A8 within Acalyphoideae s.s.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2003
                1314-2011
                February 24 2020
                February 24 2020
                : 140
                : 57-73
                Article
                10.3897/phytokeys.140.50229
                7052020
                32148432
                © 2020

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