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      The NCI60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen.

      Nature reviews. Cancer

      United States, Tumor Cells, Cultured, organization & administration, history, National Institutes of Health (U.S.), Humans, History, 21st Century, History, 20th Century, Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor, therapeutic use, Antineoplastic Agents, Animals

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          Abstract

          The US National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 human tumour cell line anticancer drug screen (NCI60) was developed in the late 1980s as an in vitro drug-discovery tool intended to supplant the use of transplantable animal tumours in anticancer drug screening. This screening model was rapidly recognized as a rich source of information about the mechanisms of growth inhibition and tumour-cell kill. Recently, its role has changed to that of a service screen supporting the cancer research community. Here I review the development, use and productivity of the screen, highlighting several outcomes that have contributed to advances in cancer chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Integrative genomic analyses identify MITF as a lineage survival oncogene amplified in malignant melanoma.

          Systematic analyses of cancer genomes promise to unveil patterns of genetic alterations linked to the genesis and spread of human cancers. High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays enable detailed and genome-wide identification of both loss-of-heterozygosity events and copy-number alterations in cancer. Here, by integrating SNP array-based genetic maps with gene expression signatures derived from NCI60 cell lines, we identified the melanocyte master regulator MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor) as the target of a novel melanoma amplification. We found that MITF amplification was more prevalent in metastatic disease and correlated with decreased overall patient survival. BRAF mutation and p16 inactivation accompanied MITF amplification in melanoma cell lines. Ectopic MITF expression in conjunction with the BRAF(V600E) mutant transformed primary human melanocytes, and thus MITF can function as a melanoma oncogene. Reduction of MITF activity sensitizes melanoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Targeting MITF in combination with BRAF or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors may offer a rational therapeutic avenue into melanoma, a highly chemotherapy-resistant neoplasm. Together, these data suggest that MITF represents a distinct class of 'lineage survival' or 'lineage addiction' oncogenes required for both tissue-specific cancer development and tumour progression.
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            Feasibility of a high-flux anticancer drug screen using a diverse panel of cultured human tumor cell lines.

            We describe here the development and implementation of a pilot-scale, in vitro, anticancer drug screen utilizing a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines organized into subpanels representing leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, colon, kidney, ovary, and central nervous system. The ultimate goal of this disease-oriented screen is to facilitate the discovery of new compounds with potential cell line-specific and/or subpanel-specific antitumor activity. In the current screening protocol, each cell line is inoculated onto microtiter plates, then preincubated for 24-28 hours. Subsequently, test agents are added in five 10-fold dilutions and the culture is incubated for an additional 48 hours. For each test agent, a dose-response profile is generated. End-point determinations of the cell viability or cell growth are performed by in situ fixation of cells, followed by staining with a protein-binding dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB). The SRB binds to the basic amino acids of cellular macromolecules; the solubilized stain is measured spectrophotometrically to determine relative cell growth or viability in treated and untreated cells. Following the pilot screening studies, a screening rate of 400 compounds per week has been consistently achieved.
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              A gene expression database for the molecular pharmacology of cancer.

              We used cDNA microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in 60 human cancer cell lines used in a drug discovery screen by the National Cancer Institute. Using these data, we linked bioinformatics and chemoinformatics by correlating gene expression and drug activity patterns in the NCI60 lines. Clustering the cell lines on the basis of gene expression yielded relationships very different from those obtained by clustering the cell lines on the basis of their response to drugs. Gene-drug relationships for the clinical agents 5-fluorouracil and L-asparaginase exemplify how variations in the transcript levels of particular genes relate to mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance. This is the first study to integrate large databases on gene expression and molecular pharmacology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nrc1951
                16990858

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