+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Fructan biosynthesis and degradation as part of plant metabolism controlling sugar fluxes during durum wheat kernel maturation


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Wheat kernels contain fructans, fructose based oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties, in levels between 2 and 35 weight % depending on the developmental stage of the kernel. To improve knowledge on the metabolic pathways leading to fructan storage and degradation, carbohydrate fluxes occurring during durum wheat kernel development were analyzed. Kernels were collected at various developmental stages and quali-quantitative analysis of carbohydrates (mono- and di-saccharides, fructans, starch) was performed, alongside analysis of the activities and gene expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and hydrolysis. High resolution HPAEC-PAD of fructan contained in durum wheat kernels revealed that fructan content is higher at the beginning of kernel development, when fructans with higher DP, such as bifurcose and 1,1-nystose, were mainly found. The changes in fructan pool observed during kernel maturation might be part of the signaling pathways influencing carbohydrate metabolism and storage in wheat kernels during development. During the first developmental stages fructan accumulation may contribute to make kernels more effective Suc sinks and to participate in osmotic regulation while the observed decrease in their content may mark the transition to later developmental stages, transition that is also orchestrated by changes in redox balance.

          Related collections

          Most cited references44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Multifunctional fructans and raffinose family oligosaccharides

          Fructans and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are the two most important classes of water-soluble carbohydrates in plants. Recent progress is summarized on their metabolism (and regulation) and on their functions in plants and in food (prebiotics, antioxidants). Interest has shifted from the classic inulin-type fructans to more complex fructans. Similarly, alternative RFOs were discovered next to the classic RFOs. Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of structure–function relationships among different kinds of plant fructan metabolizing enzymes. This helps to understand their evolution from (invertase) ancestors, and the evolution and role of so-called “defective invertases.” Both fructans and RFOs can act as reserve carbohydrates, membrane stabilizers and stress tolerance mediators. Fructan metabolism can also play a role in osmoregulation (e.g., flower opening) and source–sink relationships. Here, two novel emerging roles are highlighted. First, fructans and RFOs may contribute to overall cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by specific ROS scavenging processes in the vicinity of organellar membranes (e.g., vacuole, chloroplasts). Second, it is hypothesized that small fructans and RFOs act as phloem-mobile signaling compounds under stress. It is speculated that such underlying antioxidant and oligosaccharide signaling mechanisms contribute to disease prevention in plants as well as in animals and in humans.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            The development of endosperm in grasses.

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Seed desiccation: a bridge between maturation and germination.

              The development of orthodox seeds concludes by a desiccation phase. The dry seeds then enter a phase of dormancy, also called the after-ripening phase, and become competent for germination. We discuss physiological processes as well as gene expression and metabolic programs occurring during the desiccation phase in respect to their contribution to the desiccation tolerance, dormancy competence and successful germination of the dry seeds. The transition of developing seeds from the phase of reserve accumulation to desiccation is associated with distinct gene expression and metabolic switches. Interestingly, a significant proportion of the gene expression and metabolic signatures of seed desiccation resemble those characterizing seed germination, implying that the preparation of the seeds for germination begins already during seed desiccation.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 February 2015
                : 6
                [1] 1Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Campus Bio-Medico University Rome, Italy
                [2] 2Laboratory for Molecular Plant Biology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven Leuven, Belgium
                [3] 3Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Bari Bari, Italy
                [4] 4Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per la Valorizzazione Qualitativa dei Cereali Rome, Italy
                [5] 5Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, KU Leuven Leuven, Belgium
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zuhua He, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

                Reviewed by: Wei-Hua Tang, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Dong-Lei Yang, Chinese Academy of Science, China

                *Correspondence: Wim Van den Ende, KU Leuven, Laboratory for Molecular Plant Biology and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, 3001 Leuven, Belgium e-mail: wim.vandenende@ 123456bio.kuleuven.be ;
                Laura De Gara, Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo N° 21, 00128 Rome, Italy e-mail: l.degara@ 123456unicampus.it

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2015 Cimini, Locato, Vergauwen, Paradiso, Cecchini, Vandenpoel, Verspreet, Courtin, D'Egidio, Van den Ende and De Gara.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 49, Pages: 10, Words: 6979
                Plant Science
                Original Research Article

                Plant science & Botany
                durum wheat,fructosyltransferase,fructan exohydrolase,kernel development,bio-active molecule


                Comment on this article