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      Positive Inotropic Effects of ATP Released via the Maxi-Anion Channel in Langendorff-Perfused Mouse Hearts Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion


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          The organic anion transporter SLCO2A1 constitutes an essential core component of the ATP-conductive large-conductance anion (Maxi-Cl) channel. Our previous experiments using Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts showed that the Maxi-Cl channel contributes largely to the release of ATP into the coronary effluent observed during 10-min reperfusion following a short period (6 min) of oxygen-glucose deprivation. The present study examined the effect of endogenous ATP released via Maxi-Cl channels on the left ventricular contractile function of Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, using a fluid-filled balloon connected to a pressure transducer. After the initial 30-min stabilization period, the heart was then perfused with oxygen-glucose-deprived Tyrode solution for 6 min, which was followed by a 10-min perfusion with oxygenated normal Tyrode solution in the absence and presence of an ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, and/or an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). In the absence of apyrase and DPCPX, the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) decreased from a baseline value of 72.3 ± 7.1 to 57.5 ± 5.5 mmHg ( n = 4) at the end of 6-min perfusion with oxygen-glucose-deprived Tyrode solution, which was followed by a transient increase to 108.5 ± 16.5 mmHg during subsequent perfusion with oxygenated normal Tyrode solution. However, in the presence of apyrase and DPCPX, the LVDP decreased to the same degree during 6-min perfusion with oxygen-glucose-deprived Tyrode solution, but failed to exhibit a transient increase during a subsequent perfusion with oxygenated normal Tyrode solution. These results strongly suggest that endogenous ATP released through Maxi-Cl channels contributes to the development of transient positive inotropy observed during reperfusion after short-period hypoxia/ischemia in the heart.

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          Most cited references29

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          Extracellular ATP: effects, sources and fate.

          J. Gordon (1986)
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            Cardiac purinergic signalling in health and disease.

            This review is a historical account about purinergic signalling in the heart, for readers to see how ideas and understanding have changed as new experimental results were published. Initially, the focus is on the nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Control of the heart by centers in the brain and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involving purines are also discussed. The actions of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides on cardiomyocytes, atrioventricular and sinoatrial nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels are described. Cardiac release and degradation of ATP are also described. Finally, the involvement of purinergic signalling and its therapeutic potential in cardiac pathophysiology is reviewed, including acute and chronic heart failure, ischemia, infarction, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, syncope, hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, angina, diabetic cardiomyopathy, as well as heart transplantation and coronary bypass grafts.
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              Adenosine 5'-triphosphate: a P2-purinergic agonist in the myocardium.

              G Vassort (2001)
              ATP, besides an intracellular energy source, is an agonist when applied to a variety of different cells including cardiomyocytes. Sources of ATP in the extracellular milieu are multiple. Extracellular ATP is rapidly degraded by ectonucleotidases. Today ionotropic P2X(1--7) receptors and metabotropic P2Y(1,2,4,6,11) receptors have been cloned and their mRNA found in cardiomyocytes. On a single cardiomyocyte, micromolar ATP induces nonspecific cationic and Cl(-) currents that depolarize the cells. ATP both increases directly via a G(s) protein and decreases Ca(2+) current. ATP activates the inward-rectifying currents (ACh- and ATP-activated K(+) currents) and outward K(+) currents. P2-purinergic stimulation increases cAMP by activating adenylyl cyclase isoform V. It also involves tyrosine kinases to activate phospholipase C-gamma to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange to induce a large transient acidosis. No clear correlation is presently possible between an effect and the activation of a given P2-receptor subtype in cardiomyocytes. ATP itself is generally a positive inotropic agent. Upon rapid application to cells, ATP induces various forms of arrhythmia. At the tissue level, arrhythmia could be due to slowing of electrical spread after both Na(+) current decrease and cell-to-cell uncoupling as well as cell depolarization and Ca(2+) current increase. In as much as the information is available, this review also reports analog effects of UTP and diadenosine polyphosphates.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                21 January 2021
                : 9
                : 597997
                [1] 1Department of Physiology, Shiga University of Medical Science , Otsu, Japan
                [2] 2Department of Anesthesiology, Shiga University of Medical Science , Otsu, Japan
                [3] 3Institute of Biophysics and Biochemistry, National University of Uzbekistan , Tashkent, Uzbekistan
                [4] 4National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) , Okazaki, Japan
                [5] 5Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University , Nagakute, Japan
                [6] 6Department of Physiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine , Kyoto, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Bin Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China

                Reviewed by: Yayi Gao, National Cancer Institute (NCI), United States; Rudolf Gesztelyi, University of Debrecen, Hungary; Vladimir Lj Jakovljevic, University of Kragujevac, Serbia

                *Correspondence: Hiroshi Matsuura, matuurah@ 123456belle.shiga-med.ac.jp

                This article was submitted to Cell Death and Survival, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Copyright © 2021 Matsuura, Kojima, Fukushima, Xie, Mi, Sabirov and Okada.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 23 August 2020
                : 04 January 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 8, Words: 0
                Funded by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science 10.13039/501100001691
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Brief Research Report

                atp release,endogenous atp,ischemia-reperfusion,left ventricular contractile function,maxi-anion channel,langendorff perfusion,mouse heart


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