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      Characterization of Two Neutralizing Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus Gn Protein

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          Abstract

          The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne virus that can not only cause severe disease in domestic animals but also in humans. However, the licensed vaccines or available therapeutics for humans do not exist. Here, we report two Gn-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), isolated from a rhesus monkey immunized with recombinant human adenoviruses type 4 expressing Rift Valley fever virus Gn and Gc protein (rHAdV4-GnGcopt). The two NAbs were both able to protect host cells from RVFV infection. The interactions between NAbs and Gn were then characterized to demonstrate that these two NAbs might preclude RVFV glycoprotein rearrangement, hindering the exposure of fusion loops in Gc to endosomal membranes after the virus invades the host cell. The target region for the two NAbs is located in the Gn domain III, implying that Gn is a desired target for developing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies against RVFV.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics.

          This cohort descriptive study summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic that occurred in Saudi Arabia from 26 August 2000 through 22 September 2001. A total of 886 cases were reported. Of 834 reported cases for which laboratory results were available, 81.9% were laboratory confirmed, of which 51.1% were positive for only RVF immunoglobulin M, 35.7% were positive for only RVF antigen, and 13.2% were positive for both. The mean age (+/- standard deviation) was 46.9+/-19.4 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 4:1. Clinical and laboratory features included fever (92.6% of patients), nausea (59.4%), vomiting (52.6%), abdominal pain (38.0%), diarrhea (22.1%), jaundice (18.1%), neurological manifestations (17.1%), hemorrhagic manifestations (7.1%), vision loss or scotomas (1.5%), elevated liver enzyme levels (98%), elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (60.2%), thrombocytopenia (38.4%), leukopenia (39.7%), renal impairment or failure (27.8%), elevated creatine kinase level (27.3%), and severe anemia (15.1%). The mortality rate was 13.9%. Bleeding, neurological manifestations, and jaundice were independently associated with a high mortality rate. Patients with leukopenia had significantly a lower mortality rate than did those with a normal or high leukocyte count (2.3% vs. 27.9%; odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.63).
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            High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies.

            Defining human B cell repertoires to viral pathogens is critical for design of vaccines that induce broadly protective antibodies to infections such as HIV-1 and influenza. Single B cell sorting and cloning of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy- and light-chain variable regions (V(H) and V(L)) is a powerful technology for defining anti-viral B cell repertoires. However, the Ig-cloning step is time-consuming and prevents high-throughput analysis of the B cell repertoire. Novel linear Ig heavy- and light-chain gene expression cassettes were designed to express Ig V(H) and V(L) genes isolated from sorted single B cells as IgG1 antibody without a cloning step. The cassettes contain all essential elements for transcriptional and translational regulation, including CMV promoter, Ig leader sequences, constant region of IgG1 heavy- or Ig light-chain, poly(A) tail and substitutable V(H) or V(L) genes. The utility of these Ig gene expression cassettes was established using synthetic V(H) or V(L) genes from an anti-HIV-1 gp41 mAb 2F5 as a model system, and validated further using V(H) and V(L) genes isolated from cloned EBV-transformed antibody-producing cell lines. Finally, this strategy was successfully used for rapid production of recombinant influenza mAbs from sorted single human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination. These Ig gene expression cassettes constitute a highly efficient strategy for rapid expression of Ig genes for high-throughput screening and analysis without cloning.
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              Rescue of infectious rift valley fever virus entirely from cDNA, analysis of virus lacking the NSs gene, and expression of a foreign gene.

              Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has a tripartite negative-strand genome, causes a mosquito-borne disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan African countries and that also causes large epidemics among humans and livestock. Furthermore, it is a bioterrorist threat and poses a risk for introduction to other areas. In spite of its danger, neither veterinary nor human vaccines are available. We established a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to rescue infectious clones of RVFV MP-12 strain entirely from cDNA, the first for any phlebovirus. Expression of viral structural proteins from the protein expression plasmids was not required for virus rescue, whereas NSs protein expression abolished virus rescue. Mutants of MP-12 partially or completely lacking the NSs open reading frame were viable. These NSs deletion mutants replicated efficiently in Vero and 293 cells, but not in MRC-5 cells. In the latter cell line, accumulation of beta interferon mRNA occurred after infection by these NSs deletion mutants, but not after infection by MP-12. The NSs deletion mutants formed larger plaques than MP-12 did in Vero E6 cells and failed to shut off host protein synthesis in Vero cells. An MP-12 mutant carrying a luciferase gene in place of the NSs gene replicated as efficiently as MP-12 did, produced enzymatically active luciferase during replication, and stably retained the luciferase gene after 10 virus passages, representing the first demonstration of foreign gene expression in any bunyavirus. This reverse genetics system can be used to study the molecular virology of RVFV, assess current vaccine candidates, produce new vaccines, and incorporate marker genes into animal vaccines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                27 February 2020
                March 2020
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) and Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Beijing 100021, China; haorm_23@ 123456126.com
                [2 ]Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing 100071, China; zhangguanying_123@ 123456outlook.com (G.Z.); goodnightcxy@ 123456163.com (X.C.); 13811429044@ 123456163.com (Y.D.); fanpengfei93@ 123456163.com (P.F.); yjliu418@ 123456outlook.com (Y.L.); chenyi510@ 123456icloud.com (Y.C.); m13810676152@ 123456163.com (X.S.); lslsjy2203@ 123456sina.com (S.L.)
                [3 ]College of Wildlife and Protected Areas, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China; Zhang_Shengnan1992@ 123456163.com
                [4 ]Tianjin Institue of Envionmental and Operational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin 300050, China; 12350981150805@ 123456alumni.sjtu.edu.cn
                [5 ]Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130000, China
                Author notes
                Article
                viruses-12-00259
                10.3390/v12030259
                7150882
                32120864
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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