Objective To investigate the prevalence of anemia among students aged 6–15 years old participated in the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Program in 2012–2021 in Hunan Province, and to explore associated factors.
Methods A cluster random sampling method was used. The survey was conducted among compulsory education students who came from counties in Hunan Province where nutrition improvement plan and key surveillance were carried out. Height and weight were measured, hemoglobin, dietary habits and health knowledge were collected.
Results Since the implementation of nutrition improvement plan in 2012, the anemia rate decreased from 12.8% to 9.3%, the average hemoglobin content decreased from 133.9 g/L to 130.0 g/L. The proportion of students eating meat every day increased from 20.4% to 47.3%. Students eating three or more servings of table tennis ball-size of meal increased from 21.4% to 47.3%. The proportion of students eating more than three kinds of vegetables per day was 39.1% in 2016 and 32.6% in 2019, and less than 30% in other years. The proportion of students eating three or more servings of table tennis ball-size of vegetables increased from 19.5% to 39.6%, and the proportion of students eating snack less than once a day increased from 13.1% to 76.9%. The proportion of students drinking beverages less than once a day increased from 36.5% to 90.7%. Girls, older than 12 years, not eating meat every day, and who eat less than 1 serving of table tennis ball-size of meat, eat less than 3 servings of table tennis ball-size of vegetables and fruit at one time, and who eat less than 3 kinds of vegetables every day, and those who grow slowly had higher risk of anemia. Potential factors of anemia in students varied by survey year.
Conclusion The implementation of the compulsory education has improved the nutritional status of compulsory education students in rural areas of Hunan Province, but anemia still occurs. Potential factors associated with childhood anemia are changing. Child health literacy education should adapt to the changing social and economic enviornment, as well as lifestyles. Targeted and appropriate nutritional education and intervention are greatly needed.
【摘要】 目的 了解湖南省2012—2021年“农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”实施地区6~15岁学生贫血的流行规律及 影响因素, 为更好地实施营养改善计划提供支撑和建议。 方法 采用整群随机抽样的方法, 在湖南省实施营养改善计划以 及开展重点监测的县抽取义务教育学生, 进行身髙、体重、血红蛋白、饮食习惯、健康知识知晓情况的调査。 结果 湖南省 从2012年实施营养改善计划以来, 贫血率从12.8%下降到9.3%;血红蛋白平均体积浓度从133.9 g/L下降到130.0 g/L;每 天保证吃肉的学生、每次能吃到3个乒乓球大小肉量的学生分别从20.4%, 21.4%逐年递增到47.3%, 47.3%;每天能吃3种 以上蔬菜的学生除2016和2019年达到39.1%和32.6%, 其他年份均未超过30%;每次能吃够3个乒乓球及以上蔬菜量的 学生从19.5%递增到39.6%;每天不吃零食的学生从13.1%增加到76.9%;每天不喝饮料的学生从36.5%增加到90.7%。女 生、12岁及以上学生、不能保证每天都吃肉、每次吃肉量不足1个乒乓球、每次吃蔬菜以及水果的量不足3个乒乓球、每天 吃蔬菜种类少于3种的学生、生长发育迟缓的学生更容易发生贫血, 且各年份学生贫血发生的影响因素有所不同。 结论 农村义务教育学生营养改善计划的实施在一定程度上改善了湖南农村地区义务教育阶段学生的营养状况, 然而贫血现象 依然存在。应不断提升学生健康素养, 有针对性地开展科学合理膳食的分类指导和干预。