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      Deciphering bacterial community changes in zucker diabetic fatty rats based on 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis

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          Abstract

          The aim of the present pilot study was deciphering bacterial community changes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats), a model of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies unmasked that the status of gastrointestinal tract microbiota has a marked impact on nutrition-related syndromes such as obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, samples taken from the gastrointestinal tracts (GI tracts) of ZDF and their lean littermates (ZL rats) were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities, including those located in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and feces. Results revealed that the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased and greater numbers of Lactobacillus were detected along GI tracts in ZDF rats compared to ZL rats. In conclusion, this work is the first study to systematically characterize bacterial communities along ZDF rat GI tract and provides substantial evidence supporting a prospective strategy to alter the GI microbial communities improving obesity and T2D.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Xenobiotics shape the physiology and gene expression of the active human gut microbiome.

          The human gut contains trillions of microorganisms that influence our health by metabolizing xenobiotics, including host-targeted drugs and antibiotics. Recent efforts have characterized the diversity of this host-associated community, but it remains unclear which microorganisms are active and what perturbations influence this activity. Here, we combine flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metatranscriptomics to demonstrate that the gut contains a distinctive set of active microorganisms, primarily Firmicutes. Short-term exposure to a panel of xenobiotics significantly affected the physiology, structure, and gene expression of this active gut microbiome. Xenobiotic-responsive genes were found across multiple bacterial phyla, encoding antibiotic resistance, drug metabolism, and stress response pathways. These results demonstrate the power of moving beyond surveys of microbial diversity to better understand metabolic activity, highlight the unintended consequences of xenobiotics, and suggest that attempts at personalized medicine should consider interindividual variations in the active human gut microbiome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Obesity, Diabetes, and Gut Microbiota

            The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in adipose tissue and liver, modulation of gut peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, activation of the lipopolysaccharide toll-like receptor-4 axis, and modulation of intestinal barrier integrity by GLP-2. Instrumental for gut microbiota manipulation is the understanding of mechanisms regulating gut microbiota composition. Several factors shape the gut microflora during infancy: mode of delivery, type of infant feeding, hospitalization, and prematurity. Furthermore, the key importance of antibiotic use and dietary nutrient composition are increasingly recognized. The role of the Western diet in promoting an obesogenic gut microbiota is being confirmation in subjects. Following encouraging results in animals, several short-term randomized controlled trials showed the benefit of prebiotics and probiotics on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory markers, postprandial incretins, and glucose tolerance. Future research is needed to unravel the hormonal, immunomodulatory, and metabolic mechanisms underlying microbe-microbe and microbiota-host interactions and the specific genes that determine the health benefit derived from probiotics. While awaiting further randomized trials assessing long-term safety and benefits on clinical end points, a healthy lifestyle—including breast lactation, appropriate antibiotic use, and the avoidance of excessive dietary fat intake—may ensure a friendly gut microbiota and positively affect prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.
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              Organizational update: the world health organization global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014; one more landmark step in the combat against stroke and vascular disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                2 August 2016
                13 July 2016
                : 7
                : 31
                : 48941-48952
                Affiliations
                1 Basic Medical College, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
                2 The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
                3 Department of Emergency Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
                4 Institute of Integrative Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Libin Zhan, zlbnj@ 123456njucm.edu.cn
                Article
                10597
                10.18632/oncotarget.10597
                5226482
                27418144
                Copyright: © 2016 Gu et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Paper: Pathology

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