28 September 2016
DAF-FM DA, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorescein diacetate, DETA-NONOate, diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct, Febuxostat, 2-(3-Cyano-4-isobutoxy-phenyl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid, CysNO, S-nitrosocysteine, L-NAME, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride, LPS, Lipopolysaccharides, NADH, β-Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, NADPH, β-Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide 2′-phosphate, NO2−, nitrite, NO, nitric oxide, NOS, nitric oxide synthase, NOX, NADPH oxidase, ROS, reactive oxygen species, XOR, xanthine oxidoreductase, NADPH oxidase, Nitrite, Nitric oxide, Oxidative stress, S-nitrosation, Xanthine oxidoreductase
Inorganic nitrite has shown beneficial effects in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases partly via attenuation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX)-mediated oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of S-nitrosation or altered expression of NOX subunits, and the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in nitrite-derived nitric oxide (NO) production.
Mouse macrophages were activated with LPS in the presence or absence of nitrite. NOX activity was measured by lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence. Gene and protein expression of NOX2 subunits and XOR were investigated using qPCR and Western Blot. S-nitrosation of Nox2 and p22phox was studied with a Biotin Switch assay. Uric acid levels in cell culture medium were analyzed as a measure of XOR activity, and NO production was assessed by DAF-FM fluorescence.
NOX activity in activated macrophages was significantly reduced by nitrite. Reduced NOX activity was not attributed to decreased NOX gene expression. However, protein levels of p47phox and p67phox subunits were reduced by nitrite in activated macrophages. Protein expression of Nox2 and p22phox was not influenced by this treatment and neither was their S-nitrosation status. Increased uric acid levels after nitrite and diminished NO production during XOR-inhibition with febuxostat suggest that XOR is more active during nitrite-treatment of activated macrophages and plays an important role in the bioactivation of nitrite.
Our findings contribute to the mechanistic understanding about the therapeutic effects associated with nitrite supplementation in many diseases. We show that nitrite-mediated inhibition of NOX activity cannot be explained by S-nitrosation of the NOX enzyme, but that changes in NOX2 expression and XOR function may contribute.
Inorganic nitrite reduces NADPH oxidase activity in LPS-activated macrophages.
Xanthine oxidoreductase plays an important role in nitrite reduction to NO.
The effects of inorganic nitrite are not mediated by S-nitrosation of Nox2 and p22phox.
Nitrite reduced protein expression of p47phox and p67phox.