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      Quantitative, noninvasive assessment of intra‐ and extraocular perfusion by contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography and its clinical applicability in healthy dogs

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          To assess quantitative perfusion of intra‐ and extraocular regions of interest (ROIs) in conscious, healthy dogs utilizing contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS); to compare varying enhancement with the first and second bolus injection and in the right and left eye; and to determine the most appropriate examination time.


          Gray scale ultrasonography and contrast harmonic imaging using sulfur hexafluoride were performed randomly assigned in both eyes in 10 university‐owned beagles. Perfusion parameters including slope time, time to peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI), and area under the curve (AUC) were measured at individually drawn ROIs (retrobulbar cone = ROI 1, choroid‐retina complex = ROI 2, medial = ROI 3, and lateral anterior uvea = ROI 4).


          Time‐intensity curve parameters revealed no significant differences in eyes examined by the first or second bolus injection ( P > 0.05) or in the right or left eye ( P > 0.05). Pooled data from all eyes were analyzed. Peak intensity of ROI 2 was significantly higher compared to all other ROIs ( P < 0.001). Area under the curve at ROI 2 was significantly higher compared to all other ROIs ( P < 0.05), and AUC at ROI 1 was significantly higher than at ROI 4 ( P < 0.05). No significant differences in TTP were observed between different ROIs ( P > 0.05). Ratios relative to different ROI sizes showed fastest enhancement in the retrobulbar cone and most intense perfusion in the anterior uveal regions. The first minute after contrast injection provided the highest diagnostic value.


          Quantitative perfusion in nondiseased canine eyes revealed consistent parameters. Application of standardized CEUS protocols may be a promising diagnostic tool to differentiate ocular lesions.

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          Most cited references 39

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          The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations on the Clinical Practice of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS): update 2011 on non-hepatic applications.

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            Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs

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              Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is helpful in the differentiation of malignant and benign breast lesions.

              To evaluate the significance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examination in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions. Seventy-one patients with seventy-six breast tumors are selected randomly. CEUS examinations were performed before and after bolus injection of the contrast agent SonoVue (Bracco, Milan, Italy). Specific sonographic quantification software, Qontrast, was adopted to determine the morphology of vessels. Wash-in and wash-out parameters of each lesion were assessed for both procedures. The final histopathological findings distinguished 45 malignant and 31 benign from all of the lesions. Following SonoVue administration different perfusion phases could be identified: early (0-1min), mid (1-4min) and late (4-6min) phases. In the early phase, CEUS identified 91.1% of malignant tumors characterized by a claw-shaped enhancement, while 83.9% of benign tumors had a homogeneous enhancement, with a statistically significant difference between the two enhancement patterns (chi(2)=43.16, P<0.01). Moreover, contrast medium persistence in the late phase was helpful in the identification of benign and malignant tumors (chi(2)=46.88, P<0.01): contrast medium was present in 88.9% of malignant tumors, while in only 9.7% of the benign tumors. The study showed that various parametric imaging color maps for peak intensity and time to peak were mostly suggestive of malignancy, while quite uniform peak intensity and time to peak of color maps were the characteristic of benign tumors. The study also found that malignant lesions presented with a higher maximum intensity signal than benign ones (P<0.05) on the time-intensity curves. CEUS cooperating with conventional US shows improved accuracy in differentiating between malignant and benign breast tumors. It could be a reliable diagnostic method of breast lesions. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Vet Ophthalmol
                Vet Ophthalmol
                Veterinary Ophthalmology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                17 February 2019
                November 2019
                : 22
                : 6 ( doiID: 10.1111/vop.v22.6 )
                : 767-777
                [ 1 ] Department for Companion Animals and Horses, Ophthalmology Service University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Austria
                [ 2 ] Department for Companion Animals and Horses, Diagnostic Imaging University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Austria
                [ 3 ] Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Austria
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Klaas‐Ole Blohm, Department for Companion Animals and Horses, Ophthalmology Service, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

                Email: klaas-ole.blohm@ 123456vetmeduni.ac.at

                © 2019 University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. Veterinary Ophthalmology published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 11, Words: 6452
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                November 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.2 mode:remove_FC converted:05.12.2019


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