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      Study of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in a cohort of myocardial infarction patients with coronary artery disease


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          Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery diseases (CAD). As vitamin D manifests its biological function through its vitamin D receptor (VDR), VDR gene polymorphisms potentially affect VDR functionality and vitamin D activity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze three well-studied VDR gene polymorphisms—Fok1 (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410) and Taq1 (rs731236)—in a cohort of CAD patients after acute myocardial infarction.


          In the presented cross-sectional study, 155 participants with CAD after acute myocardial infarction and 104 participants in a control group without CAD were enrolled. The participants in both groups were Caucasians of European origin. The genotyping of VDR polymorphisms rs2228570, rs1544410 and rs731236 was assessed by RT-PCR.


          The results show an association between the T/T genotype of the BsmI (rs1544410) and the G/G genotype of the Taq1 (rs731236) VDR polymorphism and CAD patients after acute myocardial infarction. There was no association between the Fok1 (rs2228570) VDR polymorphism and CAD patients after acute myocardial infarction.


          The presented results suggest a potential association of the BsmI (rs1544410) and Taq1 (rs731236) VDR polymorphisms with CAD patients after myocardial infarction.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12872-021-01959-x.

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          Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms.

          The vitamin D endocrine system is involved in a wide variety of biological processes including bone metabolism, modulation of the immune response, and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Variations in this endocrine system have, thus, been linked to several common diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA), diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and tuberculosis. Evidence to support this pleiotropic character of vitamin D has included epidemiological studies on circulating vitamin D hormone levels, but also genetic epidemiological studies. Genetic studies provide excellent opportunities to link molecular insights with epidemiological data and have therefore gained much interest. DNA sequence variations, which occur frequently in the population, are referred to as "polymorphisms" and can have modest and subtle but true biological effects. Their abundance in the human genome as well as their high frequencies in the human population have made them targets to explain variation in risk of common diseases. Recent studies have indicated many polymorphisms to exist in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, but the influence of VDR gene polymorphisms on VDR protein function and signaling is largely unknown. So far, three adjacent restriction fragment length polymorphisms for BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI, respectively, at the 3' end of the VDR gene have been the most frequently studied. Because these polymorphisms are probably nonfunctional, linkage disequilibrium with one or more truly functional polymorphisms elsewhere in the VDR gene is assumed to explain the associations observed. Research is therefore focussed on documenting additional polymorphisms across the VDR gene to verify this hypothesis and on trying to understand the functional consequences of the variations. Substantial progress has been made that will deepen our understanding of variability in the vitamin D endocrine system and might find applications in risk assessment of disease and in predicting response-to-treatment.
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            Vitamin D and human health: lessons from vitamin D receptor null mice.

            The vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium and bone homeostasis. The precise mode of action and the full spectrum of activities of the vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2)D], can now be better evaluated by critical analysis of mice with engineered deletion of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Absence of a functional VDR or the key activating enzyme, 25-OHD-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in mice creates a bone and growth plate phenotype that mimics humans with the same congenital disease or severe vitamin D deficiency. The intestine is the key target for the VDR because high calcium intake, or selective VDR rescue in the intestine, restores a normal bone and growth plate phenotype. The VDR is nearly ubiquitously expressed, and almost all cells respond to 1,25-(OH)(2)D exposure; about 3% of the mouse or human genome is regulated, directly and/or indirectly, by the vitamin D endocrine system, suggesting a more widespread function. VDR-deficient mice, but not vitamin D- or 1alpha-hydroxylase-deficient mice, and man develop total alopecia, indicating that the function of the VDR and its ligand is not fully overlapping. The immune system of VDR- or vitamin D-deficient mice is grossly normal but shows increased sensitivity to autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or type 1 diabetes after exposure to predisposing factors. VDR-deficient mice do not have a spontaneous increase in cancer but are more prone to oncogene- or chemocarcinogen-induced tumors. They also develop high renin hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased thrombogenicity. Vitamin D deficiency in humans is associated with increased prevalence of diseases, as predicted by the VDR null phenotype. Prospective vitamin D supplementation studies with multiple noncalcemic endpoints are needed to define the benefits of an optimal vitamin D status.
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              Mendelian Randomization Studies Do Not Support a Role for Vitamin D in Coronary Artery Disease.

              Observational studies support a possible association between decreased vitamin D levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); however, it remains unclear whether this relationship is causal. We aimed to evaluate whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels influence the risk of CAD using a Mendelian randomization approach.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                16 April 2021
                16 April 2021
                : 21
                [1 ]GRID grid.22939.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2236 1630, Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Medical Faculty, , University of Rijeka, ; B. Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
                [2 ]Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation of the Heart and Lung Diseases and Rheumatism “Thalassotherapia Opatija”, M. Tita 188, 51410 Opatija, Croatia
                [3 ]GRID grid.22939.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2236 1630, Department of Biotechnology, , University of Rijeka, ; Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
                [4 ]GRID grid.22939.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2236 1630, Faculty of Health Studies, , University of Rijeka, ; Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: UNIRI
                Award ID: uniri-biomed-18-133
                Award ID: uniri-biomed-18-257
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                vitamin d receptor gene polymorphisms,bsmi,taq1,myocardial infarction,coronary artery disease,rt-pcr


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