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      Indirect versus direct detection methods of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar ( Sus scrofa)

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          Abstract

          Background

          Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar ( Sus scrofa), one of the main sources of human trichinellosis, continue to represent a public health problem. The detection of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of wild boar by digestion can prevent the occurrence of clinical trichinellosis in humans. However, the analytical sensitivity of digestion in the detection process is dependent on the quantity of tested muscle. Consequently, large quantities of muscle have to be digested to warrant surveillance programs, or more sensitive tests need to be employed. The use of indirect detection methods, such as the ELISA to detect Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar has limitations due to its low specificity. The aim of the study was to implement serological detection of anti- Trichinella spp. antibodies in meat juices from hunted wild boar for the surveillance of Trichinella spp. infections.

          Methods

          Two tests were used, ELISA for the initial screening test, and a specific and sensitive Western blot (Wb) as a confirmatory test. The circulation of anti- Trichinella IgG was determined in hunted wild boar muscle juice samples in 9 provinces of 5 Italian regions.

          Results

          From 1,462 muscle fluid samples, 315 (21.5%, 95% C.I. 19.51-23.73) were tested positive by ELISA. The 315 ELISA-positive muscle fluid samples were further tested by Wb and 32 (10.1%, 95% C.I. 7.29-13.99) of these were positive with a final seroprevalence of 2.2% (95% C.I 1.55-3.07; 32/1,462). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected by artificial digestion in muscle tissues of one (0.07%, 95%C.I. 0.01-0.39) out of the 1,462 hunted wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in Wb-negative wild boar. From 2006 to 2012, a prevalence of 0.017% was detected by muscle digestion in wild boar hunted in the whole Italian territory.

          Conclusions

          The combined use of both serological methods had a sensitivity 31.4 times higher than that of the digestion (32/1,462 versus 1/1,462), suggesting their potential use for the surveillance of the Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar populations.

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          Most cited references 20

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          New pieces of the Trichinella puzzle.

          Contrary to our understanding of just a few decades ago, the genus Trichinella now consists of a complex assemblage of no less than nine different species and three additional genotypes whose taxonomic status remains in flux. New data and methodologies have allowed advancements in detection and differentiation at the population level which in turn have demonstrably advanced epidemiological, immunological and genetic investigations. In like manner, molecular and genetic studies have permitted us to hypothesise biohistorical events leading to the worldwide dissemination of this genus, and to begin crystalising the evolution of Trichinella on a macro scale. The identification of species in countries and continents otherwise considered Trichinella-free has raised questions regarding host adaptation and associations, and advanced important findings on the biogeographical histories of its members. Using past reviews as a backdrop, we have ventured to present an up-to-date assessment of the taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology of the genus Trichinella with additional insights on host species, survival strategies in nature and the shortcomings of our current understanding of the epidemiology of the genus. In addition, we have begun compiling information available to date on genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and population studies of consequence in the hope we can build on this in years to come. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Searching for Trichinella: not all pigs are created equal.

            Each year, millions of pigs worldwide are tested for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses with negative results. Yet, thousands of people acquire trichinellosis by consuming pork. So, where is the problem? Testing for Trichinella spp. is often performed on the 'wrong' animals; while the parasites are mainly circulating in backyard and free-ranging pigs, herds kept under controlled management conditions are the ones tested. Veterinary services should: (i) introduce a risk-based surveillance system for Trichinella by documenting the control of housing conditions and feedstuff sources, and (ii) introduce a capillary network of field laboratories for monitoring the parasites in free-ranging and backyard pigs. Investment of funds into the education of farmers, hunters, and consumers should be a priority for public health services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of Trichinella infection in animals and man.

              The use of serological tests to detect Trichinella infection in domestic and wild animals and in humans has not been standardised yet. This review provides an uniform set of recommendations for the development and use of serological tests to detect circulating antibodies in serum samples. The recommendations are based on the best scientific published information and on the unpublished data from laboratories with a great expertise in this field and represent the official position of the International Commission on Trichinellosis regarding acceptable methods and the evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity. These recommendations are subject to change as new scientific information becomes available.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                1756-3305
                2014
                7 April 2014
                : 7
                : 171
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Infectious, parasitic and immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico della Sardegna, Nuoro section, Nuoro, Italy
                [3 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
                [4 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana, Florence section, Florence, Italy
                [5 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna, Modena section, Modena, Italy
                [6 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico del Lazio e della Toscana, Grosseto section, Grosseto, Italy
                [7 ]Istituto Zooprofilattico della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna, Binago section, Varese, Italy
                Article
                1756-3305-7-171
                10.1186/1756-3305-7-171
                3995759
                24708795
                Copyright © 2014 Gómez-Morales et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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