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Assessment and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection among people who inject drugs in the opioid substitution setting: ETHOS study.

Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Adolescent, Adult, Antiviral Agents, therapeutic use, Cohort Studies, Female, Hepatitis C, Chronic, drug therapy, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, New South Wales, Opiate Substitution Treatment, Patient Acceptance of Health Care, Prospective Studies, Substance Abuse, Intravenous, complications, Young Adult

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      Abstract

      Access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment remains extremely limited among people who inject drugs (PWID). HCV assessment and treatment was evaluated through an innovative model for the provision of HCV care among PWID with chronic HCV infection. Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings (ETHOS) was a prospective observational cohort. Recruitment was through 5 opioid substitution treatment (OST) clinics, 2 community health centers, and 1 Aboriginal community controlled health organization in New South Wales, Australia. Among 387 enrolled participants, mean age was 41 years, 71% were male, and 15% were of Aboriginal ethnicity. Specialist assessment was undertaken in 191 (49%) participants, and 84 (22%) commenced interferon-based treatment. In adjusted analysis, HCV specialist assessment was associated with non-Aboriginal ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05-7.90), no recent benzodiazepine use (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.31-3.24), and non-1 HCV genotype (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.32-3.43). In adjusted analysis, HCV treatment was associated with non-Aboriginal ethnicity (AOR, 4.59; 95% CI, 1.49-14.12), living with the support of family and/or friends (AOR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.25-3.71), never receiving OST (AOR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.27-8.54), no recent methamphetamine use (AOR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.12-4.57), and non-1 HCV genotype (AOR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.67-5.64). HCV treatment uptake was relatively high among this highly marginalized population of PWID. Potentially modifiable factors associated with treatment include drug use and social support.

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      Most cited references 24

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      Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality in the future. The complexity and uncertainty related to the geographic distribution of HCV infection and chronic hepatitis C, determination of its associated risk factors, and evaluation of cofactors that accelerate its progression, underscore the difficulties in global prevention and control of HCV. Because there is no vaccine and no post-exposure prophylaxis for HCV, the focus of primary prevention efforts should be safer blood supply in the developing world, safe injection practices in health care and other settings, and decreasing the number of people who initiate injection drug use.
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          The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample.

          To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            23884068
            10.1093/cid/cit305

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