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      Growth and puberty in chronic inflammatory bowel disease

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      Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          The consequences of IBD during childhood and adolescence may be devastating in terms of loss of growth potential, particularly if there has been a clinical course of frequent relapses resulting in inadequate nutrition and associated with repeated courses of steroid treatment. There is to date, however, a paucity of data recording final adult heights in such patients. The anticipation of relapse should become easier with increasing awareness of the importance of parameters of growth and pubertal development. Early and intensive nutritional support, and the use of steroid-sparing agents should help reduce the frequency and severity of any height deficit. The performance and timing of surgery must take into account the child's status in terms of height velocity and pubertal development. The importance of inducing the remission before the onset of puberty is stressed and this remission should be sustained at all costs during the pubertal years so that valuable height is not lost as a consequence of a missed pubertal growth spurt. Thus, increasing awareness of the issues of growth and development in these patients should improve the accuracy of initial diagnosis and early recognition of relapse, such that these children are ensured the best possible provision for achieving their full height potential.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha in childhood chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

          Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay in 31 normal children and during 65 episodes of clinical remission and 54 episodes of relapse in 92 children with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. An appreciable rise in TNF alpha was found only in children in relapse of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease. The group of children with small bowel Crohn's disease in relapse did not show increases of TNF alpha above control concentrations, despite an equivalent rise in disease indices. Height velocity was depressed in children with relapse of large bowel Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis compared with the equivalent condition in remission. The impairment of growth velocity was significantly greater in relapse of large bowel Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in small bowel Crohn's disease alone, although for the subgroups in stage 1 puberty (prepubertal) the differences were not significant. Inadequate growth in chronic inflammatory bowel disease is currently ascribed to inadequate nutrition and TNF alpha may contribute to this through its cachexia inducing effects. It may, in addition, diminish pituitary growth hormone release. These results suggest that production of TNF alpha may be associated with growth failure in relapse of colonic inflammatory bowel disease.
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            Decreased height velocity in children and adolescents before the diagnosis of Crohn's disease.

             W Lake,  T Bayless,  M Kanof (1988)
            Severe linear growth retardation occurs in 20%-30% of children with Crohn's disease, yet, it is unknown how often decreased height velocity precedes the diagnosis. The height velocities of 50 children and prepubescent adolescents with Crohn's disease were reviewed. Decreased height velocity antedated the diagnosis in 44 patients. Twenty-one patients had a reduction in height velocity before intestinal symptoms were noted. Additionally, 17 of 32 patients with attenuated linear growth had a reduction in height velocity before any weight loss. Linear growth impairment in Crohn's disease, more common than previously recognized, may precede weight loss and can be the earliest indicator of disease.
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              Remission induced by an elemental diet in small bowel Crohn's disease.

              Seventeen children with active Crohn's disease of the small intestine were entered into a randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of an elemental diet with that of a high dose steroid regimen. Eight children received an elemental diet (Flexical) through a nasogastric tube for six weeks, followed by reintroduction of food over six weeks during which the Flexical was stopped. Seven children were given intramuscular adrenocorticotrophic hormone followed by oral prednisolone with sulphasalazine. Two children were withdrawn from the trial. The elemental diet was equally effective in inducing an improvement in Lloyd-Still disease activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein and albumin concentrations, and body weight as the high dose steroid regimen. Linear growth, assessed from height velocity over six months, was significantly greater in the children receiving an elemental diet.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology
                Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology
                Elsevier BV
                09503528
                March 1994
                March 1994
                : 8
                : 1
                : 83-100
                Article
                10.1016/S0950-3528(06)80020-5
                8003745
                © 1994

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