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      Monitoring of Extracellular Aspartate Aminotransferase and Troponin T by Microdialysis during and after Cardioplegic Heart Arrest

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          Abstract

          This study aims at developing per- and postopertive surveillance of the myocardium and focuses on ischemic damage following cardioplegic heart arrest. Levels of troponin T and total aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were analyzed in the myocardial interstitium of 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent coronary bypass surgery and in 12 patients with nonischemic heart disease (N-IHD) who underwent valvular surgery. Fluid from the myocardial interstitium of the anterior and the lateral wall of the heart was sampled by microdialysis probes that were implanted during surgery and extracted percutaneously 70–100 h later. There were no adverse reactions, and the equipment did not interfere with the surgical procedures. The peak in troponin T serum levels that occurred 4 h after cardiac arrest was preceded by a peak in troponin T levels in the microdialysates from the interstitium that occurred 1 h earlier. The concentration of troponin T in the microdialysate peak was 300 times higher than in the serum peak. The increase in serum ASAT levels during the first 7 h after cardiac arrest corresponded in time with a decrease in interstitial ASAT levels, which had already reached a maximum during cardiac arrest. The microdialysate/serum concentration ratio was considerably smaller for ASAT than for troponin T. Interstitial peak levels of troponin T correlated positively and significantly with peak levels of ASAT. Of the 22 patients, 15 had no postoperative events according to clinical outcome, ECG and serum tests. Fourteen of these had low to normal levels of interstitial ASAT and troponin T. Conversely, atrial fibrillation and/or premature atrial contractions were recorded in 8/22 patients, 7 of whom had elevated interstitial ASAT and/or troponin T concentrations in one or both of the sampled heart regions. The N-IHD patients had higher levels of troponin T in the interstitium 20–70 h following cardioplegia, while the peak levels did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, microdialysis sampling of troponin T and ASAT is safe and allows a highly sensitive analysis of the ischemic trauma exerted by the cardioplegic arrest.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Intracellular compartmentation of cardiac troponin T and its release kinetics in patients with reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction.

          In a previous study on the diagnostic efficiency of troponin T measurements in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the authors found a high variability of troponin T serum concentration changes on day 1 in patients with AMI who underwent thrombolytic treatment. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of troponin T and to analyze the effects of AMI reperfusion on the appearance kinetics of cardiac troponin T in serum. Cardiac troponin T was measured with a newly developed bideterminant sandwich assay using cardiospecific, affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies and peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody. An unbound cytosolic troponin T pool was found in ultracentrifuged homogenates of myocardial tissue of different species ranging from 0.013 to 0.036 mg/g wet weight. The soluble troponin T molecule had electrophoretic properties identical to troponin T compartmented in the myofibrils. The clinical study group comprised 57 patients with AMI undergoing thrombolytic treatment. Blood flow to the infarct zone and point of time of reperfusion were tested by immediate and late angiography. The appearance of troponin T in serum on day 1 after the onset of AMI depended strongly on reperfusion and on duration of ischemia before reperfusion. Thus, in patients with early reperfused AMI, a marked peak in troponin T serum concentrations was found at 14 hours after the onset of pain. This early troponin T peak was absent in patients with AMI reperfusion occurring greater than 5.5 hours after the onset of pain and in patients with nonreperfused AMI. By contrast, the kinetics of troponin T release after the first day after AMI were unaffected by reperfusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Microdialysis—Theory and application

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              Lipid Peroxidation and Cardiac Troponin T Release during Routine Cardiac Surgery

              Myocardial injury after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass may be related to free oxygen radical-induced lipid peroxidation. The purpose of this study was to monitor perioperative changes of cardiac troponin t and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in patients who underwent routine cardiac operation and had no signs of perioperative myocardial infarction. Patients with thoracic surgery alone served as controls. We studied 20 patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 9 patients with other thoracic operations. Serum troponin t, malondialdehyde, myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK) including CK-MB isoenzyme levels were monitored before CPB, immediately after cessation of CPB, 20 and 44 h after CPB. Patients with signs of myocardial infarction before or up to 44 h after surgery were excluded. Of 20 patients with CBP, 18 patients showed a significant increase of troponin t and 16 patients had elevated malondialdehyde serum levels following CPB. Troponin t serum values were raised immediately after CPB to 0.60 ± 0.12 µg/l and increased further to 0.90 ± 0.17 µg/l after 44 h (p < 0.005, in comparison to preoperative: 0.08 ± 0.02 µg/l). Patients undergoing the other thoracic operations showed neither any detectable troponin t serum values nor significant changes of serum malondialdehyde during the observed period. In the CPB group serum malondialdehyde peaked immediately after CPB to 98 ± 9 nmol/g albumin (p < 0.005) and returned to preoperative levels (63 ± 3 nmol/g albumin) within 20 h (60 ± 3 nmol/g albumin). Individual maximal troponin t serum levels did not correlate with individual maximal serum malondialdehyde levels. The observed increase of troponin t levels had no influence on patients’ outcome followed up for 18 months. The results demonstrate that troponin t and lipid peroxidation increase during uncomplicated cardiac surgery in patients without signs of myocardial infarction. Following uncomplicated cardiac surgery, a moderate increase of cardiac troponin t may not reflect severe cardiac injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                1999
                February 2000
                23 March 2000
                : 92
                : 3
                : 162-170
                Affiliations
                Departments of aThoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, bInternal Medicine and cAnatomy and Cell Biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; dDepartment of Heart Surgery, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
                Article
                6966 Cardiology 1999;92:162–170
                10.1159/000006966
                10754346
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Cardiac Surgery

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