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      Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition and Its Role as an Emerging Treatment in Pemphigus

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          Abstract

          Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) has a key role in multiple pathways involved in inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, BTK has become a new therapeutic target for a group of hematologic and autoimmune disorders. The pharmaceutical industry has invested in the clinical development of BTK inhibitors during the last decade. Ibrutinib, for example, which was the first BTK inhibitor to be used in clinical trials, has two approved indications, mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and remains under evaluation for additional indications. Rillzabrutinib (PRN1008) is a new, highly potent and selective inhibitor of BTK. Early studies performed in canine pemphigus demonstrated effectiveness. A proof-of-concept, multicenter, phase 2 trial has recently showed the efficacy and safety of oral rilzabrutinib in pemphigus vulgaris. In this mini review, we present evidence regarding the mechanisms affected by BTK inhibition and the concept of BTK inhibition as an emerging new treatment in pemphigus.

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          Most cited references33

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          Reactive oxygen species in inflammation and tissue injury.

          Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key signaling molecules that play an important role in the progression of inflammatory disorders. An enhanced ROS generation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) at the site of inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction and tissue injury. The vascular endothelium plays an important role in passage of macromolecules and inflammatory cells from the blood to tissue. Under the inflammatory conditions, oxidative stress produced by PMNs leads to the opening of inter-endothelial junctions and promotes the migration of inflammatory cells across the endothelial barrier. The migrated inflammatory cells not only help in the clearance of pathogens and foreign particles but also lead to tissue injury. The current review compiles the past and current research in the area of inflammation with particular emphasis on oxidative stress-mediated signaling mechanisms that are involved in inflammation and tissue injury.
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            Targeting BTK with Ibrutinib in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

            The treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has resulted in few durable remissions. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), an essential component of B-cell-receptor signaling, mediates interactions with the tumor microenvironment and promotes the survival and proliferation of CLL cells. We conducted a phase 1b-2 multicenter study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a first-in-class, oral covalent inhibitor of BTK designed for treatment of B-cell cancers, in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. A total of 85 patients, the majority of whom were considered to have high-risk disease, received ibrutinib orally once daily; 51 received 420 mg, and 34 received 840 mg. Toxic effects were predominantly grade 1 or 2 and included transient diarrhea, fatigue, and upper respiratory tract infection; thus, patients could receive extended treatment with minimal hematologic toxic effects. The overall response rate was the same in the group that received 420 mg and the group that received 840 mg (71%), and an additional 20% and 15% of patients in the respective groups had a partial response with lymphocytosis. The response was independent of clinical and genomic risk factors present before treatment, including advanced-stage disease, the number of previous therapies, and the 17p13.1 deletion. At 26 months, the estimated progression-free survival rate was 75% and the rate of overall survival was 83%. Ibrutinib was associated with a high frequency of durable remissions in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma, including patients with high-risk genetic lesions. (Funded by Pharmacyclics and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01105247.).
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              The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome.

              As the sequencing of the human genome is completed by the Human Genome Project, the analysis of this rich source of information will illuminate many areas in medicine and biology. The protein tyrosine kinases are a large multigene family with particular relevance to many human diseases, including cancer. A search of the human genome for tyrosine kinase coding elements identified several novel genes and enabled the creation of a nonredundant catalog of tyrosine kinase genes. Ninety unique kinase genes can be identified in the human genome, along with five pseudogenes. Of the 90 tyrosine kinases, 58 are receptor type, distributed into 20 subfamilies. The 32 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases can be placed in 10 subfamilies. Additionally, mouse orthologs can be identified for nearly all the human tyrosine kinases. The completion of the human tyrosine kinase family tree provides a framework for further advances in biomedical science.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front Med (Lausanne)
                Front. Med.
                Frontiers in Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-858X
                10 August 2021
                2021
                : 8
                : 708071
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Unit, 2nd Dermatology Department, Aristotle University School of Medicine , Thessaloniki, Greece
                [2] 2Department of Dermatology, St George Hospital, University of New South Wales , Sydney, NSW, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ralf J. Ludwig, University of Lübeck, Germany

                Reviewed by: Khalaf Kridin, Rambam Health Care Campus, Israel; Daisuke Tsuruta, Osaka City University, Japan; Christoph M. Hammers, University of Lübeck, Germany

                *Correspondence: Aikaterini Patsatsi katerinapatsatsi@ 123456gmail.com ; apatsats@ 123456auth.gr

                This article was submitted to Dermatology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fmed.2021.708071
                8382970
                34447768
                d908d289-ef7b-4c92-be91-46a86ac083b8
                Copyright © 2021 Patsatsi and Murrell.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 11 May 2021
                : 19 July 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 5, Words: 3876
                Categories
                Medicine
                Mini Review

                bruton's tyrosine kinase,rilzabrutinib,btk inhibition,pemphigus vulgaris,pemphigus foliaceus

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