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      Regulation of IRF-3-dependent innate immunity by the papain-like protease domain of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

      The Journal of Biological Chemistry

      immunology, chemistry, Viral Proteins, virology, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, enzymology, SARS Virus, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Peptide Hydrolases, Interferon Type I, Interferon Regulatory Factor-3, Immunity, Innate, Humans, Cell Line, cytology, Bronchi, Animals

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          Abstract

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease, SARS, with significant mortality. Although factors contributing to the highly pathogenic nature of SARS-CoV remain poorly understood, it has been reported that SARS-CoV infection does not induce type I interferons (IFNs) in cell culture. However, it is uncertain whether SARS-CoV evades host detection or has evolved mechanisms to counteract innate host defenses. We show here that infection of SARS-CoV triggers a weak IFN response in cultured human lung/bronchial epithelial cells without inducing the phosphorylation of IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a latent cellular transcription factor that is pivotal for type I IFN synthesis. Furthermore, SARS-CoV infection blocked the induction of IFN antiviral activity and the up-regulation of protein expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes triggered by double-stranded RNA or an unrelated paramyxovirus. In searching for a SARS-CoV protein capable of counteracting innate immunity, we identified the papain-like protease (PLpro) domain as a potent IFN antagonist. The inhibition of the IFN response does not require the protease activity of PLpro. Rather, PLpro interacts with IRF-3 and inhibits the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF-3, thereby disrupting the activation of type I IFN responses through either Toll-like receptor 3 or retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 pathways. Our data suggest that regulation of IRF-3-dependent innate antiviral defenses by PLpro may contribute to the establishment of SARS-CoV infection.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          17761676
          2756044
          10.1074/jbc.M704870200

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