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      The Renin-Angiotensin System and Progression of Renal Disease: From Hemodynamics to Cell Biology

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          Abstract

          The renal community is faced with an ever increasing number of patients reaching end-stage renal failure. Clinical studies have provided clear evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and probably also AT<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonists, at least in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, slow disease progression to end-stage renal failure. This protective effect of drugs interfering with the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are in part independent of reduction in systemic blood pressure, but involve normalization of glomerular hyperperfusion and hyperfiltration, restoration of altered glomerular barrier function, and reduction of stimulated tubular fluid reabsorption. Angiotensin II (ANG II) has emerged in the last decade as a multifunctional cytokine exhibiting many non-hemodynamic properties such as acting as a growth factor and profibrogenic cytokine, and even having proinflammatory properties. This review tries to bridge the classical hemodynamic actions of ANG II in the kidney with the more recently characterized effects of this vasopeptide. Finally, clinical implications are suggested based on data from clinical studies. A thorough understanding of the RAS is important to recognize the potential of nephroprotective strategies through inhibition of its components.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

           Ryan Andersen,  P Arner,   (2001)
          Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
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            Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies.

             T Bertani,  G. Remuzzi (1998)
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              Renoprotective properties of ACE-inhibition in non-diabetic nephropathies with non-nephrotic proteinuria.

              Stratum 2 of the Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy (REIN) study has already shown that in patients with chronic nephropathies and proteinuria of 3 g or more per 24 h, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition reduced the rate of decline in glomerular filtration and halved the combined risk of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal failure (ESRF) found in controls on placebo plus conventional antihypertensives. In REIN stratum 1, reported here, 24 h proteinuria was 1 g or more but less than 3 g per 24 h. In stratum 1 of this double-blind trial 186 patients were randomised to a ramipril or a control (placebo plus conventional antihypertensive therapy) group targeted at achieving a diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. The primary endpoints were change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and time to ESRF or overt proteinuria (> or =53 g/24 h). Median follow-up was 31 months. The decline in GFR per month was not significantly different (ramipril 0.26 [SE 0.05] mL per min per 1.73m2, control 0.29 [0.06]). Progression to ESRF was significantly less common in the ramipril group (9/99 vs 18/87) for a relative risk (RR) of 2.72 (95% CI 1.22-6.08); so was progression to overt proteinuria (15/99 vs 27/87, RR 2.40 [1.27-4.52]). Patients with a baseline GFR of 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less and proteinuria of 1.5 g/24 h or more had more rapid progression and gained the most from ramipril treatment. Proteinuria decreased by 13% in the ramipril group and increased by 15% in the controls. Cardiovascular events were similar. As expected, the rate of decline in GFR and the frequency of ESRF were much lower in stratum 1 than they had been in stratum 2. In non-diabetic nephropathies, ACE inhibition confers renoprotection even to patients with non-nephrotic proteinuria.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2003
                January 2003
                30 October 2002
                : 93
                : 1
                : p3-p13
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Osteology, University of Hamburg, Germany
                Article
                66656 Nephron Physiol 2003;93:p3–p13
                10.1159/000066656
                12411725
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 113, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66656
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